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Lecture notes - January 10

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York University
BIOL 1500
Alexander Mills

Biology Lecture 2 January 13, 2014 BIOL1001 Origin of Species  Mechanism of evolution: Natural Selection Factors that lead to Theory of Evolution:  Culture of Philosophy - Age of enlightenment: age of reason (Europe: 1600-1800) - Resists hegemony of religions - Darwin’s grandfather wrote a poem on how the earth formed with an explosion - ^ Made Darwin more open minded about the changing earth  European Imperialism - Europeans travelling everywhere to map the coast - Alfred Russell Wallace (1823-1913)  Spent his time in South east asia whereas Darwin in England  Both articulated the theory of Natural Selection Both collected fossils, birds, etc.  Farming - Artificial Selection (IMPORTANT CONCEPT) - ^ Humans have intentionally modified other species over many generations by selecting and breeding individuals with desired traits - Whereas natural selection, the environment chooses the selected individuals to survive - Ex. Different types of dogs and plants  Geology - Geologists kept discovering that the Earth is older than they thought every year - Cannot account for rates of erosion - Charles Lyell (friend of Darwin’s) Gave Darwin a book: uniformitarianism was promotes by his friend in his book - Sedimentary Rocks are in layers on the Earth Fossils are mostly found in these ^Usually laid in oceans/water  Paleontology (study of fossils) - Strata is one layer of sedimentary rocks (stratum is plural) - Georges Cuvier (best known paleontologist) Labelled an earlier era as an “age of reptiles” Concluded: the deeper the strata, the more dissimilar the fossils are from current life ^ This suggested that species are changing over time Not an evolutionist (could not believe in changing forms incrementally) He was a “catastrophist” : extinctions were due to things like volcanoes Articulated a principle of the correlation of Parts - Another great Paleontologist: Mary Anning Greatest fossil hunters of the 1800s Jean Baptiste de Lamarck  Contemporary of Cuvier  Published his theory of evolution in 1809, the year Darwin was born  Lamarckian: acquired characteristics get passed on and natural selection occurs - Life driven from simple to complex - Microbes continually generated spontaneously - Adaptation occurs through inheritance of acquired changes - Use and disuse Idea: - Body parts that are used become larger and strong
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