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Lecture 1 - Introduction - January 8 (Anthony).docx

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BIOL 2021
Patricia Lakin- Thomas

January 8, 2012 Lecture 1: Introduction and How to Visualize Cells Introduction  Biology is a contingent science (based on the past)  Biology emphasizes the importance of evolutionary history o Evolution is a tinker  No first principles  Mechanisms appear to be arbitrary  we don’t understand the controls o i.e. “Why does it do this?” It just does  Motor proteins polarization via cytoskeleton (locomotion)  Cell communication (signal proteins/hormones) o Calcium, junctions (tight, gap, desmosomes)  Endocytosis and vesicles  Cell division control, oncogenes and the cell cycle Cell Structure  Bacteria – no internal membranes  Eukaryotes – internal membranes  Plants – chloroplasts  Cell walls in: bacteria, fungi, plants o Noted that chemically, they are all different Visualizing Cells  Light microscopy: image focused with the condenser o Transmitting light through the specimen o Bright field is better for coloured specimens  Kill it, thin section, stain it o Figure 9.8  Phase contrast microscopy – good to make transparent cells visible o Thermoforms  Fluorescence – excited by one wavelength, then emits at another wavelength o Dyes lik
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