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Lecture

BIOL 2030 Lecture Notes - Parapodium, Oligochaeta, Coelom


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 2030
Professor
Scott Kelly

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Annelids
Annelids
Phylum of segmented coelomate worms, commonly called ringed worms. They have a
soft elongated body with a muscular body wall, divided into many similar segments,
usually separated by septa, and covered with a thin, flexible collagenous cuticle. They
possess a blood system, nephridia, and a central nervous system. The annelida
contains three main classes: Polychaeta (ragworms, lugworms), Oligochaeta (e.g.
earthworms) and hirudinea (leeches)
Chlorocruorin
Green, haem-containing, oxygen-carrying protein found in the blood of certain
polychaete worms
Clitellum
Swollen glandular portion of skin of certain annelids, such as earthworm, which
secretes the cocoon in which an embryonic worm develops
Enteronephric
With nephridia opening into gut (in oligochaetes)
Episphere
Heteronomous
Segmented into dissimilar segments
Metamere
A segment of a worm
Metamerism
Body divided into a serial succession of segments
Metanephridia
Nephridial tubule with opening into the coelom
Nephridiopore
External opening of excretory organs (nephridia) in invertebrates
Nephridia
Excretory organ having function of kidney in invertebrates
Nephrostome
Opening of nephridial tubule into body cavity
Oligochaete
Class of annelid worms characterized by possession of a few bristles (setae or
chaetae) on each segment and no parapodia, and which includes the earthworms
Parapodia
Lateral undulating extension of foot in some molluscs, used for propulsion
Peristomium
Region surrounding the mouth, in ciliate protozoans, starfish, annelid worms, insects,
echinoderms, etc.
Peritoneal septa
Membrane separating the compartments of metameres
Peritoneum
Membrane partly applied to abdominal walls, partly extending over the organs
contained in abdominal cavity, delimiting the peritoneal cavity
Polychaetes
The bristle worms, a class of mainly marine annelid worms, e.g. ragworms and
lugworms. They possess parapodia bearing numerous chaetae which are used for
crawling, and have a pronounced head bearing tentacles, palps, and often eyes
Prostomium
In some annelids and molluscs, the part of the head anterior to the mouth
Prototroch
Preoral circlet of cilia in a trochosphere larva
Pygidium
An exoskeletal shield covering tail region of some arthropods, and various structures
in the same region in other insects
Seta
Chitinous hair or bristle, arising from epidermis of many invertebrates, e.g. polychaete
and oligochaete annelid worms and insects
Telotroch
Trochophore
Free-swimming top-shaped pelagic larval stage of annelids, bryozoans, and some
molluscs, forming part of the zooplankton. It has a ring of cilia around the rim and a
terminal ring or tuft of cilia in front of the mouth

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**Life Table**
Oligochaetas: earth worms
Polychaeta: have parapodia
Body form & structure
Segmented (cephalization)
Prostomium & pygidium: Anterior/Posterior
Note: 2nd region near anterior NOT trunk segment; it’s a peristomium
Youngest segment @ the bottom:
segments created @ teloblastic growth zone
Tapeworms more reproductive-focus, these worms here ganglia, digestive system / segment
Episphere Prostomium, (prototroch telotroch area peristomium)
o Metamerism body a serial succession of segments (metamere=segments)
o Clitellum localized reprod. Structures, seg. 9-15 (body wall
excess mucous
swallows
up as a cocoon, no clitellum not sexually mature)
Peristoneal septa seperates metameres (each segment a fluid sac)
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