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BIOL 2030 Lecture Notes - Occipital Condyle, Ovoviviparity, Lizard

Course Code
BIOL 2030
Scott Kelly

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Amniotic Egg
Eggs of birds, reptiles, and prototherians (eggy-laying mammals) within which extra-
embryonic membranes are formed during embryonic development (filled with amnionic
Group of worm-like, burrowing, generally limbless reptiles with inconspicuous eyes and
rounded tails
Subclass of diaspid reptiles, the “ruling reptiles”, that included the dinosaurs, mainly
extinct but including the living crocodilians, with specializations of the skeleton showing
trend towards bipedalism
Order of reptiles found first in the Triassic, typified by the present-day crocodiles and
alligators, which are armoured, have front limbs shorter than hind, and a body
elongated for swimming
Poison affecting vasculature, causing blood vessels to break down
Group of Mesozoic aquatic reptiles with spindle-shaped body with fins and fin-like limbs
Jacobson’s organs
A diverticulum of the olfactory organ in many vertebrates, often developing into an
epithelium-lined sac opening into the mouth
Suborder of reptiles containing the lizards; most species are four-legged, some running
on their hind-legs, but some (slow-worms) are legless. They include insectivorous,
herbivorous, and carnivorous species, and are adapted to a wide range of habitats,
including very dry regions
Order of Mesozoic dinosaurs, commonly called the bird-hipped dinosaurs, having a
pelvis resembling that of a modern bird. They were all herbivorous and included both
bipedal and quadrupedal members
Organisms that produce an egg with a persistent outer covering, but which hatches
within the maternal body
Parietal Eye
Part of the epithalamus present in some animal species, used to sense outside temp
Pit Organ
Infrared eye, allowing the snake to “see” in the dark and better-focus its attack
An order of Jurassic and Cretaceous archosaurs, flying reptiles commonly called
pterodactyls, which have a membranous wing supported by a greatly elongated fourth
Class of amniote, air-breathing, poikilothermic tetrapod vertebrates, mostly terrestrial,
having dry horny skin with scales, plats, or scutes, functional lungs throughout life, one
occipital condyle and a four-chambered (imperfect) hart. Most reptiles lay eggs with a
leartherly shell but some are ovoviviparous. Reptiles include the tortoises and turtles,
the tuatara, lizards and snakes, crocodiles, and many extinct forms, such as dinosaurs,
Large order of Mesozoic archosaurs, commonly called lizard-hipped dinosaurs. They
included both bipedal carnivores and very large quadrupedal herbivores
Suborder of reptiles comprising the snakes
Oder comprising the turtles, having a body/cartilaginous shell
Giving birth to live young as opposed to laying eggs
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Reptilian Adaptations
Exclusively terrestrial
Amniotic Egg (Internal Fertilization)
o Membranes & Shell
Gas Exchange
Reduction of water loss
Water conservation strategies
o Touch, dry skin
o Salt Glands
o Nitrogenous waste excretion uric acid (less toxic, less water loss in terrestrials) vs.
Ammonia (more toxic, more water, in aquatics)
Morphological Adaptations
Better body support via skeleton (enable standing up)
Jaws adapted for crushing/gripping
Dry, Scaly skin heavy protective armour
Systemic Adaptations
3-Chambered heart: note, mixing of oxygenated and non-oxygenated blood; in reptiles, 3-
chambered heart with septa (to reduce mixing); Crocodilians: 4-chambered
-ve pressure breathing: muscles attached to lungs
increase resp. rate
faster movement
o Additional sensory organs (unique to reptilians)+ larger brain
Testudines Turtles [changed little over 200my]
Oviparous; oldest 255 years old
Inflexible trunk & long flexible neck (interact with env’t)
o Plastron-carapace enclosure (ribs+vertebrae)
Offers Protection, but hard to breathe (reduced respiratory capacity)
more muscles @ lungs (w/o expanding cavity) + BREATHE WITH
MOUTH +(cloaca)
Very Slow smell & colour vision highly dev’d (but deaf-mute)
o Note: aqueous turtles need muscle to swim (or else will sink!) FAST ON LAND
Serpentes Snakes
Limbless & lengthy body plan (can be limiting)
Constrictors ambush prey | add lots of mass
hard to catch up, hence they ambush
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