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[15] Aves.docx

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BIOL 2030
Scott Kelly

Aves Archaeornithes A subclass of primitive reptile-like fossil birds including archaeoptyrex Aves Birds, a class of bipedal homoiothermic vertebrates having the body clothed in feathers and front limbs modified as wings, and the skin of the jaw forming a horny bill (beak). They are descended from the extinct archosaurian reptiles. Barb One of the delicate threadlike structures extending from the shaft of a feather and forming the vane Barbule Lateral projection from barb of feather, serving to hold barbs together to form an unbroken vane Contour Feathers Outermost feathers that cover the body of birds Down Feathers The first fluffy feathers of young brids, with a short quill and with barbules not interlocking to form a flat vane. Some birds retain a down layer under adult plumage Filoplumes Delicate hair-like feather with long axis and a few free barbs at apex Follicle Sheath of epithelium surrounding hair or feather root Furcula The united clavicles of birds, the wishbone Manus Hand, or part of forelimb corresponding to it, as present in amphibians, reptiles, and mammals Neognathae Superorder of “new jaw”-ed birds, mainly flying Neornathes Subclass of birds, including all extant modern birds Paleognathae The ratites, flightless birds of the subclass Neornithes such as the kiwis, cassowaries, and strich, which are secondarily flightless Pectoralis Breast muscle connecting breastbone with humerus, much enlarged in birds where it is a main flight muscle Pelvic Girdle In vertebrates, a skeletal support in the hip region for attachment of hind-fins or hindlimbs, made of a hoop of cartilages or bones Pneumatized Having air cavities Pygostyle A compressed upturned bone at end of vertebral column in birds, composed of fused vertebrae Quill The central shaft of a feather Shaft Stalk of feather or hair Sternum Breastbone in vertebrates Supracoracoideus A flight muscle in birds, running indirectly from breast bone to humerus and responsible for raising the wing Synsacrum Mass of fused vertebra supporting the pelvic girdle of birds Unciate Process A hook shaped process on the lateral borders of the superior surface of vertebral bodies of the third to seventh cervical vertebrae Vane The web of a feather, consisting of the thread-like barbs Air Sacs Spaces filled with air and connected with lungs in birds Avascular Lung Organ specialized for the respiratory uptake of oxygen directly from air and release of carbon dioxide to air Mesobronchi In birds, the main trunk of a bronchus giving rise to secondary bronchi Parabronchi One of numerous small tubules in lungs of birds, connecting dorsobronchi and ventrobronchi, and in which respiratory gas exchange takes place Brief Breakdown **SPECIES POINT**  Archaeoptyrex ~147myo, connective link between birds & dinosaurs o A class of both reptiles & birds o @ caudal region, vertebra runs to the very tip (see pic farther down) Definitive morphology: SHAPED 4 FLIGHT Little size difference, 2g min vs 20g max **SPECIES POINT** Teratorn sp. [~80kg!] extinct Flight imposes restrictions  weight- reduction & other physiological factors Feathers ONLY IN BIRDS: defining characteristic Contour Feathers [body & flight feathers] o Aerodynamic contour: streamlines body surface, lightweight, strong covering o Quill (from skin follicle), Shaft (continuation of quill, supporting barbs), Barbs (arranged in parallel, spread diagonally from shaft  ASYMMETRICAL vanes), Barbules link adjacent barbs by overlapping hooks o Preening (running beak parallel to barb axis) reattch barbules o Asymmetrical +
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