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BIOL 2030 Lecture Notes - Chinese Giant Salamander, Shoulder Girdle, Stratum Corneum

Course Code
BIOL 2030
Scott Kelly

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Vertebrate class including the extant subclass Lissamphibia, comprising the frogs and
toads (order Anura), newts and salamanders (order Urodela) and the worm-like
caecilians (order Apoda). There are also a number of extinct subclasses dating from the
Devonian onwards, of which the ichthyostegalians are the earliest amphibian fossils
found. Amphibians are ectothermic anamniote tetrapod vertebrates that typically
return to the water for reproduction and pass through an aquatic larval stage with gills.
Adults generally have lungs, are carnivorous, and may be at least partly land-living,a nd
modern amphibians have a moist skin without scales, which is permeable to water and
One of the three orders of extant amphibians, comprising the frogs and toads
Buccal Pumping
Using lungs with a positive-pressure breathing (push air in)
=Urodela; One of the three orders of extant amphibians, containing the newts and
salamanders, amphibians with well-developed tails and two pairs of more-or-less equal
Collar bone, forming anterior or ventral portion of the shoulder girdle
Granular Gland
Apoda; Order of limbless burrowing amphibians, commonly known as caecilians, having
a reduced or absent larval stage and minute calcified scales in the skin
The bone of the upper arm, or upper part of vertebrate forelimb
Covering, investing, or coating structure or layer
Mucus Gland
Slimy material rich in glycoproteins, secreted by these cells
Retention of juvenile traits in adults
Pectoral Girdle
In vertebrates, a skeletal support in the shoulder region for attachment of fore-fins or
forelimbs, made up of a hoop of cartilages or bones, usually the scapula, clavicle, and
Having gills persisting throughout life, as in certain amphibians
The bones of the fingers and toes of vertebrates
Bone of vertebrate forelimb between humerus and carpals
The formation of sacs or saccules (small sac/pouch)
In vertebrates, the shoulder blade (the dorsal parto f pectoral girdle)
Stratum Corneum
Cornified layer
One of thelong bones of vertebrate forearm, parallel with radius and in some
vertebrates combined with it to form a single bone
One of the wrist bones, lying at the far end of the ulna
Giving birth to live young
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Amphibia Orders
Gymnophona (caecilians) burrowing organisms; males copulatory organ
Caudata (salmanders/newts) Northern region; Chinese GIANT Salamander (up to 6 ft long)
o In freshwater, & predators as larvae & adult
Anura (frogs/toads) many variations, & CAN TOLERATE FREEZING
o Many variations of fundamental life cycle; many habitats; vocalization for
communication; Body plan heavily mod from ancestral (4 same limbs, prominent tail)
Early Evolution (400 mya, invasion had begun)
@ Devonian era, mild temp & alternating droughts/floods unstable aq. Environment
o 1) Lungs (aerial breathing, aid survival) gills bad for gas Xch (in air)
Dev. as outgrowth of foregut (efficiency by sacculation -alveoli, increase SA- &
vascularization of gas-filled space)
Modern Lungfish fundamental plan (Note: swimbladder COMPLTELY SMOOTH,
not 4 gas X)
Note: upon invasion, gills must be given up for lungs (else dry out)
o 2) Limbs fin shape (& appendicular skeleton)
use to reach out for air
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