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BIOL 2060
Joel Shore

Displaying Data 2.1 Displaying frequency Distributions - Relative Frequency: proportion of observations having a given measurement (freq. /total number of observations) - Relative freq. Distribution: shows the proportion of the occurrences of each value in the data set - Frequency table: text, showing the # of occur. In each category - Bar graph : height of rectangular bars to visualize the frequency of each category - You can organize the table by putting the most frequent at the top - Rules for bar graph: baseline must be zero, and you must label the graph. - Bars should be of the same width and start at the baseline and shouldn’t be fused together, provide total number of observations in the figure legend. - Histogram: uses area of rectangular bars to display frequency, splits into bins, equal width, uses RANGES - Mode (histogram): highest peak ..bimodal means 2 peaks - Symmetric: two sides are mirror images - Skewed: if not symmetric ...skewed right: tail on the right...skewed left: tail on the left - Outliers: extreme data points, removed if SHOWN to be errors - To choose the width of ranges (histogram): look at if what the data shows on 2 separate graphs is true or not - Rule (histogram): bars rise from baseline zero, no separation between bars, at the boundary then place in the higher interval..sturges rule of thumb: 1+1(n)/ln2 (n is the number of observations), but we use more intervals than sturges, break at god numbers 2.2 Quantiles of a frequency distribution - Percentile: value below which x% of the individual
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