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Lecture

BIOL 2900 Lecture Notes - Recombinant Dna, Herd Immunity, Smallpox Vaccine


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 2900
Professor
Motti Anafi

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IMMUNIZATION AND VACCINATION
Immunization and Vaccines
Vaccins are produced by growing microbes in a labratory using culture vessels. Because viruses need a host cell to
reproduce, they are cultured inside chicken eggs. For example the flu vaccine.
-- Blood=cells + plasma
--antibodies secreted out of the cell into plasma (when doing serum tests)
Plasma=serum eg,. Antibodies, seriological tests
Cells=B-cells secretion of soluble Abs
o Put blood in centrifuge and run for 10 minutes immediately after you will see that the lower fraction consists
of cells, debris, etc and the top will have antibodies and the plasma
T-cells- come in two different types, helper cells and killer cells
o helper cells- primary task is to activate B cells and killer T cells
o killer T cells- specialized in attacking cells of the body infected by viruses and sometimes also by bacteria (do not
secrete immunoglubulins)
Immunization - the administration of any antigenic inoculum, which are called vaccines.
Vaccine - a substance used to stimulate the production of antibodies and provide immunity against one or several
disease, prepared from the causative agent of a disease, its products, or a synthetic substitute, treated to act as an
antigen without inducing the disease
Different Modes of Acquiring Immunity
*Remember- the immune response has two steps
1) Primary Exposure: - very first time you see the antigen
- this is usually when you get sick
- your body makes the antibodies while you are sick
2) Secondary Exposure: - second time you are exposed to the antigen
- antibodies that was produced in the first exposure mark the antigen for destruction so you don't get sick
PASSIVE: (using plasma)
1. Naturally (baby)
- - the body passively recieves antibodies from another individual.
- passed from mom to baby
--babys born with no immune however have antibodies from mom. These antibodies last approx. 3 months, with
some lasting as long as 6 months. (just before birth into circulation)short term protection from pathogens that
mom is immunize against as only antibodies are attained, not immune cells, therefore the protection is
temporary.
--antibodies from mom through breast milk (ie, gastro problems)
--acquired immunity is passive and natural
2. Artificial
--antibodies from someone else ie. Ab injection

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--used as a drug (means after a short time the pt. is not going to have defence in the future)
--no memory cell will develop for future protection
--given to a person in urgent situations to provide protection for short-term (eg. Snake bite)
ie. Rabies and Antivenom.
ACTIVE: (activating cells with antigen) acq’d when body makes its own Abs or T cells to an Ag
- active imm is mainly a method of prevention
1. Naturally
--being exposed to pathogens
--occurs when the body responds to exposure to pathogens and environmental antigens by mounting specific immune
responses
ie. getting the flu
-- end up completely immune this way
2. Artificial
--active vaccination (letting the body think the pathogen in the body by form of vaccine, activation of Bcells and Tcells
formation occur)
--introduce immunity by introducing antigens in the form of vaccines
ie. flu shot
-- end up not completely immune; active vaccination creates long term immunity how ever flu are exception as the flu
virus changes all the time and each time different version is introduced to the body. in the cases of other diseases active
vaccination create complete protection from the diseases.
Humoral Adaptive Immunity (Ch. 16 p. 490)
Humoral Immunity: - antibody mediated
- Ab are produced by plasma cells (mature B lymphocytes)
- immunoglobulins are various types of Ab
- here the antigen triggers the B cell
- the plasma cell (mature B cell) is located in the lymph node; the antigen enters
- the plasma cell produces an antibody specific to the triggering antigen
- some of the antibodies form the antibody/antigen complex (does not kill Ag)
- this activates the complement which destroys the complex by way of an inflammatory response
- some of the other antibodies become a memory cell
- these cells hang out in the lymph nodes to mount a quick immune response next time!
- this all stops when the antigens are all bound
Cell Mediated Immunity
- immune response initiated by recognition of a foreign antigen by a T cell
- intracellular pathogens (virus), fungal infections, rejection of transplanted tissue, contact hypersensitivity, and tumor
immunity - if any get into your body its a T cell response
- antigen triggers the T cell
- T cell meets the antigen; this causes the T cell to morph into a cytotoxic T cell (CD8) specific to the antigen
- some kill the antigen all on their own
- others become memory cells
- all of this cannot happen without helper cells
- when we no longer need anymore, the suppressor T cell tells to stop
Major Histocompatability complex - all cells have them
- identifies each one of your cells as your own so that your body doesnt attack its own cells
- Discovered when trying to graft animal tissue into another animal. Recipient rejected tissue very quickly and activated
immune response very quickly to graft. Rejection occurs because of antigen found on unrelated cells contained in the
graft

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Antigens (Ag)
--are substances that induce a specific immune response and subsequently react with the products of a specific immune
response
--everything you have in the body related to immunity (can be a virus,
Antibodies (Ab, immunoglobulins, Ig)
--are proteins in molecules that are produced by plasma cells in response to an antigen and can bind specifically to that
antigen
--antibodies recognize foreign pathogens (antigens) and help destroy them, then attract phagocytes which devour the
antibody-antigen complex
Passive Immunization
--natural: placental transfer of IgG (systemic Abs) from mother to newborn
--after baby born, breast feeding gives antibodies to defend GI tract (transferring IgA)
--artificial (antibodies from other people)
--antibodies made from an immune animal (horses, guinea pigs)
Disease
Product
Use
Rabies
Rabies Ig
Post-exposure, locally (administered with rabies vaccine)
vaccinia
Vaccinia Ig from
human
Treatment of progressive vaccinia infection usually
resulting from smallpox vaccination in
immunocompromised individuals
Varicella (chicken
pox)
Varicella-zoster Ig
Post exposure in high risk individuals
Cytomegalovirus
(CMV)
Hyper-immune
human Ig
Prevention, used most often in organ transplantation
patients
Hepatitis A
Pooled human Ig
Prevention of Hep A infection
Hepatitis B
Hepatitis B Ig (HBIG)
Prevention in high risk infants (administered with hep B
vaccine)
Snake and other toxic
bites
Specific IgG (from
horse)
Post exposure treatement
Hypo-gamma-
globulinemia
Pooled human Ig
Prevention of many diseases in patients with an immunie
disorder characterized by a reduction in types of gamma
globulins (ex. when people do not make any anitbodies)
Post Exposure Passive Immunization- Bacterial Toxins
Diphteria- Product (Specific Ig from horse-Avial of Diphteria antitoxin, dated 1895. Exotoxin secreted by bacteria). Use-
Treatment of Diphteria infection.
Botulism- Product (Specific Ig from horse). Use-Treatment of wound and food born forms of Botulism is treated with
botulism immune globulin-baby BIG.
Tetanus --Ig from human --treatment if tetanus infrection
Post Exposure Passive Immunization Against Viruses
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