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BIOL 2900 Lecture 1

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BIOL 2900
Mordechay Anafi

In agriculture microbes are involved in N xation In waste management they Videare used to break down waste materials in landlls They are used for familiar oculinary purposes such as making wine bread and cheese Animals use it to digest cellulose from plant products Plants need microbes as well one of which include algae Intestinal ora is necessary for digestion However antibiotics can kill commensal good bacteria inside the stomach Much of the oxygen available to us comes from aquatic microbes Microbes are able to recycle phosphorous oxygen sulfur and nitrogen There are 10 bacterial cells for every one cellBeneficial Roles of Microbes into organic compounds such as Turning inorganic molecules such as N and CO2amino acids and nucleic acidsThey are ultimately responsible for atmospheric O Cyanobacteriaaquatic 2microbesMicrobes are intimately involved in waste breakdowngarbagesewage treatmentsFood production wine bread and cheese production for example Yeast is necessary for bread productionfermentation and for ethanol Drug preparation Penicillin and insulin are derived from microbes Microbes synthesize these as defence from other microorganisms Genetic engineering Digestion and nutrition in animals and humans Rumen are incubators for microbesIntestinal flora reside around there Bacteria in the large intestine needs microbes to makes enzymes and intestinal flora present in large intestine produces vitamin K Natural microbial flora provides protection against more virulent microbes For example plants depend on microbes especially algaea small fraction of microbes actually cause harm most are important for lifeour bodies are covered in microbes for every cell in the body we have 10 bacterial cellsBefore microbial drugs sulfoamides were used as an effective means to Side treat infectionsnoteSulfonamide or sulphonamide is the basis of several groups of drugs The original antibacterial sulfonamides sometimes called sulfa drugs or sulpha drugs are synthetic antimicrobial agents that contain the sulfonamide group Some sulfonamides are also devoid of antibacterial activity eg the anticonvulsant sultiame The sulfonylureas and thiazide diuretics are newer drug groups based on the antibacterial sulfonamides1Sulfa allergies are common2 hence medications containing sulfonamides are prescribed carefully It is important to make a distinction between sulfa drugs and other sulfurcontaining drugs and additives such as sulfates and sulfites which are chemically unrelated to the sulfonamide group and do not cause the same hypersensitivity reactions seen in the sulfonamidesMicrobes and DiseaseMicrobes have caused the most devastating epidemics disease in recent human historyWithin developing countries microbial infections are the leading cause of deathplagues initially from transmission by water later moved to human transmissionMicrobes have changed historyeg ColumbusEuropeans coming from Europe to the Americas infected aboriginals and killed them because the aboriginals had no immunity to the pathogens that theEuropeans carried eg measles and smallpoxChild birth mortality can be accounted mostly by microbial infectionsVideoMicrobes Host EquilibriumThe natural evolution of a microbe operates on its spreading capacity not on its ability to cause a diseaseEffectiveness can be evaluated through its capacity to propagate not on its capacity to killA dead host is not beneficial to microbes as it will eventually die with the host and ultimately not be able to spread Natural selection favours less or nonvirulent microbes eg H1N1 Influenza of 2009 First few infections were very deadly and latter generations were relatively benign eg TuberculosisHIV VS Ebola Virus SARSTuberculosisHIV create a chronic state of disease that allows the microbe to last a long time in its host without killing it ultimately increasing its lifetime and its ability to spread and infect other hosts this is favoured Drugs have
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