Class Notes (811,155)
Canada (494,530)
York University (33,712)
Biology (2,149)
BIOL 2900 (72)
Lecture 2

MB Week 2.docx

10 Pages
Unlock Document

York University
BIOL 2900
Motti Anafi

Microbiology - Week 2 Bioterrorism information is new information added to training of medical personnel. Bioterrorism: What Can Be Done by First Responders?  awareness - don't rule out the possibility of bioterrorism for atypical symptoms (e.g. flus during the summit, adult patients from an event with atypical symptoms)  if faced by suspected case(s) seek expert advice ASAP - the experts know how to best approach potential cases  no panic - the main goal of terrorists is create social panic - don't feed it Anthrax  cases per year:  1950s, 50 - 60 cases mostly rural and from animals  1960s -1990s - 1 or 2 per year because animals vaccinated against anthrax, only 1 or 2 inhalation anthrax - mostly cutaneous - the two forms have different manifestations  2001 - 18, 11 inhalation and 7 cutaneous  2001 cases initially diagnosed as flu  cutaneous anthrax  spores infect through skin  eschar (black burn like ulcer on skin) typical  not fatal unless no treatment sought and then can spread throughout body  gastrointestinal anthrax  from eating dead animal on fields  almost unheard of in North America  coecal lesions in intestinal  vomiting, diarrhea  generally fatal due to difficulty in diagnosis and bacterial moves to lymph nodes and throughout body resulting in shock  inhalation anthrax  fast - normal to very reduced lung capacity can be 24 hours  spores very fine and able to get into lungs deeply  germination happens in lungs and bacteria able to spread easily through lungs via lymph after being engulfed by macrophages, grows in the lymph node and then destroys node and moves into body  initial symptoms are flu like  treatment for anthrax is anti-biotics  amount of supporting care is different depending on the type of infection  inhalation anthrax requires long term ventilator (several weeks) The most successful bioterrorism is that one that puts the most pressure on the health care system including the use of equipment and panic. Smallpox (variola major)  virus, one of the largest and most complex  in the 20th century there was 300 million cases and 30% were fatal  smallpox has been eradicated from the general population  eradication was possible because of the success of the vaccine  vaccine was used a lot  human is the only host for smallpox (other pox virus that affect other animals)  there is no asymptomatic carriers - if you are infected it will show (the pox show on the face) and people will stay away (not like polio and measles that have asymptomatic carriers)  very aggressive viruses that kill the host will not last (as discussed last week)  smallpox also known as The Black Plaque due to the other symptoms related to blood coagulation  right now people are not being vaccinated against smallpox which makes us very vulnerable to having it used against us  Smallpox in the wrong hands?  “over a twenty-year period that began, ironically, with Moscow's endorsement of the Biological Weapons Convention in 1972, the Soviet Union built the largest and most advanced biological warfare establishment in the world...through our covert program, we stockpiled hundreds of tons of anthrax and dozens of tons of plague and smallpox near Moscow and other Russian cities for use against the United States and its Western allies”.  after the fall of the Soviet Union there are a lot of questions as to what happened to these materials and where they are now  smallpox has been used as a weapon in the past (Native populations given blankets used by smallpox victims) Factors that affect the emergence of disease  microbial adaptation  microbes easily adapt to changing environments and can easily change to become resistant to antibiotics  new mutations and recombination’s between different strains -  think of the different forms of the flu and the uniqueness each has  antibiotics resistance  human behavior  international travel  sexual activity  human susceptibility to infection  poverty, malnutrition  poor sanitation  changing ecosystems  climate and weather - different viruses thrive in different weather (West Nile virus, Hanta virus)  wars  1918 flu pandemic was during WWI - soldiers from all over the world were travelling to Europe to fight  Spanish Flu - developed in Kansas City in 1916 and travelled to Europe via soldiers  bioterrorism Structure/Function of Bacteria Cell Structure: Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Prokaryotic Eukaryotes Nucleus No Yes RNA processing No Yes organelles No Yes cell wall Yes Not in animals Prokaryotic Structure of Flagella  long structures that extend beyond the surface of the cell  the flagella may be arranged differently depending on species: o one at one end o multiple ones at one end o over the entire surface Function of Flagella  responsible for movement o rotation propels bacterium through environment  used in chemotaxis o movement towards (or away) from substances  Axial Filaments o similar function to flagella o run lengthwise along cell o snake-like movement Fimbria and Pili Fimbria  sticky projections  involved with the ability of bacteria to adhere to one another and the host, to substances in the environment  may be hundreds per cell and are shorter than flagella  fimbrae may be evenly distributed over entire surface  attach to specific receptors on other bacteria and host area  ecoli O157 - linked to pathogen to enter into the blood circulation and effect kidneys and effectiveness related to effectiveness of fimbria Pili  long hollow tubules  longer than fimbrae but shorter than flagella  bacteria typically only have one or two per cell, but not every bacterium has pili  joins two bacterial cells and mediates the
More Less

Related notes for BIOL 2900

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.