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BIOL 3110
Peter Cheung

Sept 10, 2009 -what is molecular biology? -Blend of biology and chemistry -Concerned with the molecular activities that govern the biological properties of a cell Central Dogma Hypothesis -Suggested that the information is stored in the DNA and after the process of translations and transcription the information can be converted to protein. DNA –(transcription) RNA –(translation) protein -Proteins are not made directly made from the DNA molecule. -Transcription is creating a transcript in the same “language” of DNA -Translation converts the transcript of the DNA into an amino acid sequence -Changing the phenotype does not change the genotype in return Replication -All cells use the DNA as their genetic molecule and store all the inheritable information there. -In replication the cell needs to create another copy of the DNA -Some of the more primitive viruses (both ds and ss) store their genome in RNA and replicate via RNA intermediates -RNA viruses have a much higher mutation rate (RNA replication is much more prone to error than DNA) this is one of the reason why they are so hard to combat and create vaccines for it. -Not all viruses are RNA based genomes, some do have a DNA library. -Some viruses are capable of reverse transcription. -is it hypothesized that that eukaryotic cells do carry out reverse transcriptase (make DNA from RNA) refer to 1.16 (genes IX) Essential Elements of Translation -There are many different types of RNA used in the translation process -mRNA = template for protein synthesis, guides the proper placement of amino acids -tRNA = delivers the specific amino acid to the ribosome and interacts with the codons to interface with mRNA -rRNA = originally thought they performed only structural roles to allow the ribosome to perform its task pr
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