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BIOL 3110
Peter Cheung

Oct 29, 2009 How Did Interrupted Genes Evolve -Exon duplication and shuffling; the presence of exons has always been a part of the genes early on in life. The existence of introns allow for the exons to be shuffled and reorganized -The size of an exon is usually smaller than an intron; when exons are shuffled they tend to be flanked on either side by introns, the most important criteria for successful insertion is to ensure that the reading frame is the same as before. -Do some exons represent distinct protein domains? -Immunoglobulin proteins are made of 2 protein chains, the light and heavy “chains”. The variable region is used for attaching onto the antigen and the constant is used for binding onto the pathways to remove it. -Do distinct genes share exons? -There are certain proteins or receptors that share exons with out genes, such as the LDL receptor and EGF precursor. -As proteins increases in length the genes have a greater number of exons to code for them, not larger exons -Site in protein (represented by the intron/exon boundaries of the gene) is located at the surface of the protein. DNA Packaging -All genetic information from bacteria or eukaryotes is highly condensed to fit all the information of the genome into the nucleus; the DNA is also usually complexed with RNA and proteins. -The actual size of the genome is usually much greater than the size of the organism itself, however, due to the thinness of DNA and its highly compacted forms it can be fitted in. Compartment Shape Dimensions DNA length E. coli cell Cylinder 1.7 x 0.65 um (L x 1.
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