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BIOL 4160 Lecture Notes - Special Creation, Soapberry, Coccyx

Course Code
BIOL 4160
Rebecca Jubis

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Chapter 2: The Pattern of Evolution
Pg. 37-49
Theory of Special Creation has two components:
First component:
Species do not change through time
They were created independently of one another
They were created recently
Second component:
Identifies the process that is responsible for producing the pattern: separate and
independent acts of creation by a designer
Special Creation (Theory of Special
-Species do not change
-Each species separately created
-Earth and life are young
Descent with Modification (Theory of
-Species change over time
-Species derive from common ancestors
-Earth and life are old
2.1- Evidence of Change through Time
Microevolution- small scale change
Macroevolution- dramatic change in bodies of living organisms
Direct Observation of Change through Time:
Soapberry bugs feed by using their long beaks to attack the inflated, balloon like fruit capsules of
their host plants. The bugs probe the seams between the capsule’s panels, trying to reach the
seeds, which are held in the center of the capsule far away from the walls. When a bug manages
to reach a seed, it pierces the seed coat, liquefies its contents, then sucks them up.
Read bottom of Pg. 40, and Pg. 41 for clean explanation of change substantially over time.
Vestigial Organs:
Vestigial Structure- is a useless or rudimentary version of a body part that has an important function in
other, closely allied, species
Humans too have vestigial structures; ex. A tiny tailbone called the coccyx (Pg. 42, Fig 2.5a)
Vestigial traits also occur at the molecular level
Evidence from the Fossil Record:
Fossil- is a trace of any organism that lived in the past
Fossil Record- total, worldwide collection of fossils, scattered among thousands of different institutions
and individuals
Law of Succession:
Fossil and living organisms in the same geographic region are related to each other
and are distinctly different form organisms found in other areas
Law of Succession- general pattern of correspondence between fossil and living forms from the same
Today’s species are descended with modification from ancestors that lived in the same
region; it is to be expected that they would bear a stronger resemblance to their recent
ancestors than to their more distantly related kin in other parts of the world
The resemblance between living and fossil forms in the same region suggests that
living organisms are descended with modficiation from earlier species.
Transitional Forms:
Species are descended with modification from earlier forms and that fossils
represent past populations, some of which were ancestors of creatures alive today
If this was right, then the fossil record should capture evidence of transformations in
progress: transitional species showing a mix of features, including traits typical of
ancestral populations and novel traits seen later in descendants
Pg. 53-65
Ring Species:
First kind of evidence one might seek for common ancestry is documentation that one species
can split into two
Some species appear to be in the process of splitting into two. Freely interbreeding populations
connect the entire species, but members of certain populations do not interbreed.
Greenish warbers show that with space and time one species can gradually divide into two
oPg. 53; Fig 2.17
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