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BIOL 4370 (20)

Nov. 21st.docx

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BIOL 4370

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Nov. 21 st • EEG: used noninvasively in human - electrodes are placed on skull and voltage difference between electrodes are recorded - poor spatial resolution - afferent axons releases glutamate and causes Na to rush into cell - Na rushing into cell causing LACK OF sodium in fluid (negative voltage) - irregular activity in afferent axons doesn’t show anything in EEG, but if afferent axons are synchronized then you can see negative blips in EEG (EEG adds up sum of all afferent axons) - half of dolphins wave is on during sleep (greater EEG signals) • Extra cellular recordings: allow us to record form a single neuron - records voltage changes (as a result of APs)at membrane of neuron - what stimulus does cell respond to or what is response latency of cell? - microelectrode (stretched tube with fine point) has saline solution inside it which conducts electricity (voltage in cell generates current in microelectrode) - needs amplifier for voltage change to be observable - microelectrode records voltage changes outside of cell in CSF - humans can differentiate between words based on length of sound • Intracellular recording: electrode is inserted into cell (records from single neuron) - uses finer electrode than extracellular recording - we can record sub-threshold potentials (EPSPS, IPSPS, and APs) - can see individual APs - 1000 times smaller changes detected than extra • Voltage clamp technique: put electrode in axon that serves as thermometer (to keep voltage same: negative loop) - inward current happens at 0 mV but inward current is lost when higher mV are maintained: Caused by sodium coming in • Patch clamp: records individual ion channels - you have pulled glass pipette (fine tip) filled with fluid/wire - tip is placed against membrane and suction is applied - in cell attached condition you can detect current coming in/
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