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BIOL 4370
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NROB60 Study Package Week 1 Homira OsmanWeek 1 Lecture May 6 2008Lecture TopicsLecture IReadings Chapter 7Pages 168170 Chapter 1 pages 118Lecture Summaries L17000 years ago people were doing brain surgery o Evidence suggests that even our prehistoric ancestors appreciated that the brain was vital to life o The archaeological record is rife with examples of hominid skulls dating back a million years and more bearing signs of fatal cranial damage presumably inflicted by other hominids o As early as 7000 years ago people were boring holes in each others skulls with the aim not to kill but to cure A process called trepanationThis procedure may have been used to treat headaches or mental disorders perhaps by giving the evil spirits an escape routeo Recovered writings from the physicians of ancient Egypt dating back almost 5000 years indicate that they were well aware of many symptoms of brain damageAncient Greeks The organ of sensation but debate on if it is the seat of intelligence o If you consider the brain as the organ of sensation then you have reached the same conclusion as several Greek scholars of the fourth century BCo The most influential scholar was Hippocrates the father of Western medicine who stated his belief that the brain not only was involved in sensation but also was the seat of intelligence However this view was not universally acceptedo The famous Greek philosopher Aristotle clung to the belief that ht eheart was the center of intellecto Aristotle reserved the brain as a radiator for the cooling of blood that was overheated by the seething hearto The rational temperament of humans was thus explained by the large cooling capacity of our brain Roman Empire Separate functions for cerebrum and cerebellum o The most important figure in Roman medicine was the Greek physician and writer Galen who embraced the Hippocratic view of brain function o As physician to the gladiators he must have witnessed the unfortunate consequences of spinal and brain injury o However Galens opinions about the brain probably were influenced more by his many careful animal dissectionso CerebrumIn the front Rather softRecipient of sensationsLargely concerned with sensation and perceptionRepository of memoryo Cerebellum In the backRather hard Command the muscles Primarily a movement control centerNROB60 Study Package Week 1 Homira Osmano Galen recognized to form memories sensations must be imprinted onto the brainthis occurs in the doughy cerebrumo Galen cut open the brain and found that it is hollowIn these hollow spaces called ventricles there is fluid According to Galen the body functions as a balance of four vital fluid or humorsSensations were registered and movements initiated by the movement of humors to or from the brain ventricles via the nerves which were believed to be hollow tubes like blood vesselsth Renaissance to 19 century Mechanistic view and the pineal gland o Galens view of the brain prevailed for almost 1500 yearso More details was added to the structure of the brain by the great anatomist Andreas Vesalius during the Renaissanceo Ventricular localization of brain function Devices supported the notion that the brain could be machinelike in its functionFluid forced out of the ventricles through the nerves might literally pump you up and cause the movement of the limbso Rene Descartes proposed that brain mechanisms control human behavior only to the extent that the behavior resembles that of the beasts o Human mental capacities exist outside the brain in the mind o Descartes believed that the mind is a spiritual entity that receives sensations and commands movements by communicating with the machinery of the brain via the pineal gland The pineal gland was the conduitth 1718 century Distinct grey and white matter with functional interpretationso White matter because it was continuous with the nerves of the body was correctly believed to contain the fibers that bring information to and from the gray matterth End of 18 century Complete dissection of the brain lead to CNS and PNS o The nervous system consists of two divisionsCNSPNS o Nervous system has a central division consisting of the brain and spinal cordTwo parts of the CNS are the brain and the spinal columnThe brain consists of the cerebellum the cerebrum and the brain stem o Nervous system has a peripheral division consisting of the network of nerves that course through the bodyThe PNS consists of the nerves and nerve cells that lie outside the CNS31 pairs of nerves leave the spinal cordEach nerve consists of incoming sensory fibers and outgoing motor fibersFibers divide into spinal roots where they attach to the cord o The same general pattern of bumps called gyri and grooves called sulci and fissures could be identified on the surface of the brain in every individual
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