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Lecture 19

BIOL 4510 Lecture 19 Stem Cells 2.pdf

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York University
BIOL 4510
Peter Backxx

BIOL4510KINE4510 Stem Cells and Heart Regeneration Peter Backx Regenerative Medicine Regenerative medicine uses genes proteins and cells to repair or replace damaged organs Some tissues display regenerative properties such as blood bone and liverHowever the heart and brain has very limited regenerative capacity This is unfortunate since a big cardiovascular problem is myocardial infarction heart attack This leads to a large loss of cellsMoreover once a heart attack has occurred to further myocyte death and increased scarringFigure illustrates the problem with heart attacks Major problem after birth cardiac myocyte regeneration is limited and the cells lost after a heart attack are not replenishedHowever adult cardiac stem cells are present in the heart and other organs which can replenish cardiomyocytes Cardiomyocyte regeneration must occur sincea The heart looses about 2 of the cardiomyocyte per year b The number of heart cells in an normal adult is about more than 3 to 4fold greater than a neonatal This can be easily demonstrated by the following observations heart weight increases by 20 times from birthBut myocyte sizes only increase about 45fold Therefore cardiomyocytes can replicate 1Zebrafish and some reptiles and amphibians can easily regenerate new myocardial tissue very quickly throughout their livesafter resectioning up to 20 of the heart dashed lines new GATA4positive cardiomyocytes are producedMammalian hearts loose the capacity to regenerate early in development Top row shows that resectioning 1day old neonatal rat hearts can regenerate after 21 daysLower panel shows that if resectioning is done at day 7 no regeneration occurs just fibrosis like a heart attack 2
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