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Lecture 2

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CHEM 1500
Valeria Tsoukanova

Friday September 7 , 2012 Chemistry Lecture 2 Chemistry Science • Chemistry is the science focused on specific types of matter (that chemical substances are composed of) and transformations between them. • Deals with the composition and chemical properties of matter Matter • Is anything that has mass and occupies space in a form of gas/ solid/ liquid in a variety of composition and properties Composition • Is what type of matter us made up of Properties • Are observable or measurable quantities that distinguish one type of matter from another Classification of matter • Matter is made up of “tiny building blocks” called atoms • There are 115 types of matter • Periodic table can be found in text book on page 51, figure 2.15 Atoms • Made up of fundamental particles (electrons (ē) , neutrons and protons) • Viewed as a spherical cloud • Atoms of the same type, make up an ELEMENT • Example: 2 hydrogen molecules can combine to form the H molecule; meaning H 2 Chemical Element • Is a type of matter made up of only a SINGLE type of atom Classification of Matter • While forming matter, atoms can combine in a variety of ways. • Atoms can tightly bind together in small units called MOLECULES • Atoms can also for a continuous network called CRYSTALS • Molecules and atoms of different types (arranged in crystals) constitute chemical compounds Chemical Compounds • Chemical compound is a type of matter in which atoms of two or more different elements are combined together. • Elements and compounds are called SUBSTANCES Compounds and elements • Atoms and molecules can form different arrangements depending on the STATE OF MATTER State of mater • Matter can exist in following states o Solid, liquid, gas • Depending on conditions, substances may exist in only one state of matter, or maybe in two or three states • Upon changing conditions, a substance may undergo a change in state, from solid to liquid, to liquid to gas, etc • WATER is a type of matter that can be found in three states coexisting together o Solid= Ice o Liquid= water liquid o Gas= water vapour (Textbook: page 8, figure 1.7) Solid state • Is a highly organised arrangement of atoms or molecules in close contact • Always has definite volume and shape • For water, the solid state is: • Ice: on ma
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