Class Notes (806,814)
Canada (492,451)
York University (33,494)
COMN 1000 (106)

Notes- Full Fall Term.doc

15 Pages
Unlock Document

York University
Communication Studies
COMN 1000
David Skinner

Introduction to Communication Page 1 of 15 (Sept. 21) Communication= -media values, current issues (TV, radio, computer, internet, mobile –technology-, newspaper (advertising) -everything that’s published/broadcasted to people (advertising) -public relations -social interaction -corporate media- organizations- influence society to care/hate/fear/ sell (for a profit)— not just for citizens—ensured by public rights declaration (code of conduct- for broadcasters..) -learn/reflection through media (influenced) -develop behaviour -way to deliver/receive messages- flow of information (Sept.28) Social Theory= A way of representing the world a “model” of the world (or elements of it); how the world works -not to explain, but to change -different ologists define social theory differently (look at the world in different ways- by class, gender, race (critical approach) Theory= a set of ideas that provides a systematic explanation of social relationships Purpose: 1) To provide explanations for how & why things are the way they are. 2) To guide action (eg social policy, improve quality of life) Marx : the purpose of the theory not simply to explain the worlds but to change it. -the social world is too complex for one definition – so social scientist break it down into several chunks 1) define the field of study (ex sociology, psychology) -each approaches the world in different ways: makes a value judgement about what aspects of social world to study…. 2) define the approach to that field (whether it be liberal, institutional, critical, technological…) Social model of communication: Active process- based on background/personal history Encoding Encoded Medium: Decoding Decoded Envelope: Content: Envelope : Content: Choice of Receiver Universe ofSender Selection of medium (ie Universe of Selection of understandin actual text, telephone understandin framework for g within symbols, and conversation) g witin which and achieved which sender context for and choice of receiver understanding of forms communicati form within understands communication communicati on (formation medium communicati on (personal of thougts (story telling, on (personal (initial outlook, and ideas, direct outlook, impressions, situational with nuances description, situational developing interrogation, comprehension, dynamics, and taking degree of dynamics, final culture, into account engagement ) culture, understanding of ideology) audience, ideology) speaker, content, script, sound, and context) visuals) Introduction to Communication Page 2 of 15 Communication “communis” (Latin) = to make common – it is an action making something common to one or more person(s) Encoding & decoding messages- Interpretation – act of process – creates meaning Your history education, race, position in the world determines how you intemperate something. Mass = large group, therefore mass communication= making something common among a large group Communication= a social action involving two or more people in the process of encoding and decoding or creating and interpreting messages Mass Communication is a central/key feature of social life & has influence in almost every dimension (structural functions) of our lives (mass p6) Harold Innis & Marshal McLuhan argue form or medium of communication can determine how society is organized and how people interpret the world. “medium” = A vehicle of which the exchange of info takes place. (ex church buildings, language, radio...) The medium makes a difference in how we communicate. Innis & McLuhan see 3 different broad types of media: Oral, Literate and Electronic Oral Society - “time bias” (society is close knit because of the knowledge that is invested in individuals)  this provides for stable, adaptable culture with ideas & knowledge generated for use in specific places (medical plants, building materials) Literate Society - “space bias” – the medium tends to bind people together in space (books)  building on this idea tends to encourage ways of doing things across space (linear thinking) Electronic Society – (radio, TV, telephone, comp) connects and interacts in multiple points across great distance. It breaks down social barriers and traditional roles, and creates new relationships across space. this leads to (McLuhan) global village = instantaneous communication bring societies closer together since people can communicate with each other from all ends of earth other writers argue it leads to a mix and match of ideas and values/collisions between different cultures and ways of life. (Oct.5) -space bias (see diagram in mass p19) -communication has a relationship between social structure and dominant view and ideas -(mass ch2: considers social context of mass communication -medium (singular) ex newspaper mediums (plural) ex tv and radio together Mass media= construct and send messages (whether it be educational, political, broadcast, news, entertainment) /“texts”/images that link people and groups of people together across time and space Introduction to Communication Page 3 of 15 -expanded in a wide range of places like satellite –removes their space barrier Media exists: to make money (individuals and corporations), to inform people of particular events and circumstances, to educate, for further ideas and interests (entertainment) -serves interests of audience, journal, history, outlets, producers… -contradictory and different interests and purposes at the same time -generally, however, the media exists to coordinate social action across time and space Media “mediate” (come between) social relations and coordinates social action across distance—sharing actions (thinking, activities) Production (creating goods and services)  consumption (buy/use) Media enables this relationship and helps develops skills to enter labour force, find investors for companies (financial information), find work, create markets for products (advertising), help coordinate sales (interact/credit cards/telephone) Mass media: part of industrial society—enable spatial and temporal organization -facilitates leisure/work, and public/private space -implicated in almost every element of society’s structure—key to operation of society (billboards, internet, TV, radio…) (see definitions by Denis McQuil) History of Western Society -traditional feudal society industrial society (aka European enlightenment) -Shift in way people in Europe saw their relationship to the world -thinking not subject to will of god anymore (church/monarchy) but being a free agent (ability to change the world) Key ideas: scepticism towards Church, individualism, belief in science, use of reason, education catalysts to change in society (Machiavelli (the Prince), Copernicus (telescope), Galileo (world not revolved around Sun), Newton, Hume, Kant) --shift in ideas brought shift in social structure Mass society- people have their own interests Feudal: stayed in place because of god at the top of the triangle (with serfs at the bottom) Development of new knowledge- shifts structures Industries/division of labour developed geographically---becomes more specialized, industrial –factories, industries produce certain things in certain cities (ie Hamilton- steel) *Communication technology took form then: press (economic/political information), photographs (sense of community/family/personal life), motion pictures (curiosity, entertainment), telegraph/telephone (business information, important personal messages) --across time and space Telegraph/railway- to coordinate movement of raw and finished goods to markets (logs to sawmills, grain to flour mills…) Introduction to Communication Page 4 of 15 Before, wouldn’t go more than 7 miles away from home (thought nothing was there, and took too long to get there…), now is scattered across vast distance- like people now— different rhythm to life (before centered around farm, now city- introduce leisure -different modes of communication when people moved to the city- introduced motion pictures etc to occupy leisure time Across time and space Newspaper- develop and control markets (workers- employers, advertising- producers and consumers Radio-advertisers Media= social form- succeed for and function- ?- developed through human interaction History of Canada: Early 19 century- had colonies -lines of communication: ran towards centre of empire (Britain/US) not linking colonies together, since was how they traded 1865: Us (North side) stopped free trade with Britain (because they supported the South)- trade barriers… 1867: government of colonies decided to try and create an east-west “national” economy instead of N-S trading -industrial centres were created in Ontario and Quebec, and then their goods were moved and shipped elsewhere National Policy: 1) transcontinental railway across Canada- method of shipping (“ribbon of steel” linking Canada together) 2) tariff (tax) barrier on cheap US goods—if finished goods, couldn’t move it across the border (since so expensive), example- had to put together cars in Canada, couldn’t be built in US and then shipped to Canada .. so encouraged companies to manufacture in Canada (like Ford Canada, Coke, general electric Canada) (Oct. 19) *Mass communication: P66 US goods cheaper because of Economics of Scale - Ex. Manufacture stove: set up factory (10 million), create stove –parts and labour (5) -so need to sell stove for 10,000,005, so make more stoves and will cost you less money -US Market: Canada 10:1 -less people to sell to, so manufacturing will be more expensive *Mass communication P68 –the Economics of Media Representation -produce magazine- printing press, writers, editors, photographers… , paper, ink -Canadians compete with Americans- -railway, tariff- products of material goods -media encourages east-west flow of ideas/communication systems Introduction to Communication Page 5 of 15 legislation and organizations like Broadcast Acts, CBC, National Film Board (documentaries-see Canada through film), Telecommunications act, Canadian Content regulations (magazines, TV have to show a certain amount of Canadian programming in prime time), telephones -sell more US goods (programming) since make more profit (since cheaper) *government subsidizing important so people will get Canadian content -economics of production: influence what we see from the media of the world less Canadian content so don’t represent Canada= less Canadian national identity…) US vs. Canada: no 5 Amendment in Canada, but we have more knowledge of a foreign justice system than our own Media operates in society: product of industrial development -different perspectives, assumptions from different parts of society Mass communication p87 How social conditions/circumstances influence the production, distribution, and consumption of media messages – both active processes 1. encoding- when ideas/messages are put into symbolic form 2. decoding- when meaning is made of them (interpreting) exam- draw diagram, label parts, talk about context of the Simpsons (10-15marks) Diagram: semicircle- “(medium)” “message” in box on top, “encoded” on left, “decoded” on right bottom- line connecting two- “larger social circumstances”, in middle “shared” shared field of social knowledge and values where mass communication system operates –language, social values, ideas about gender/family/etc) political (libel law, content regulations, mandates, copyright) and economic (drive for profit-American products) circumstances which frame process of media production, organizational influences, professional values, technical means- how content put together=mode of distribution (decoding) personal history, concept of consumption -all inter-related and influence how content is created and consumed P157/8- broadcasting act- politics influence content (ex CBC vs. privately owned) Decoding- context of consumption- children and media- if kids watch TV with parents- big influence on how understand TV program- and diff if watch with friends/ or by self In-Class Assignment - The Simpsons the one with the science project and drinking 1) Economic influence: divided into commercials to capitalize on your anticipation (general commercial format), time collapsed in the story- program broken up to allow for commercials to be inserted, to keep you watching, not a full hour 2) characters stereotypes, people that we all “recognise” and allow us to immediately recognize what is going on in the show (nuclear family in industrial society), much of the humour is built off of exaggeration they represent and the interplay between them (mischievous boy…), ex ridicule and play tricks on authority figures like the school principal/sibling rivalry Introduction to Communication Page 6 of 15 3) between personal interest and the gamily, sibling rivalry, greedy bar owner, weak willed patrons- personal conflicts that are common/familiar to allshared social values (see diagram above) 4) generally dominant, “positive” kinds of social/traditional values (drinking is bad)- doesn’t represent divorce 5) yes, it shows that if you stick to the rules, live by wholesome values, everything will be okay (rise above struggles) and you can bike off into the sunset- live happily ever after 6) draws on characters and conflicts we all recognize, but although they are “edgy” they are portrayed in a relatively benign way so they don’t alienate audience members 7) has several things going on at the same time, moves back and forth to keep your interest, leaves things hanging before commercials, appears at the same time/place every week during “leisure” time 8) ads have a different rhythm, images etc to differentiate themselves from the show, show structured around the commercials and usually have some sort of cliff-hanger or another plot complication before a commercial break, ads themselves: don’t talk as much about the products as the relationship between the people and the products, they strive to construct relationships between people and products, to provide ideas about how the product fits into your lifestyle (Oct.26) & Oct30 Tutorial -private networks (CBC) chose to put foreign (US) shows on prime time to produce more profit so can use that money to produce Canadian content (economy of scale) -active process- making meaning- ideas from past and present situations to interpret -dominant values in society –see previous notes- promoted by TV shows Communications theory: mass comn-ch1- models of communication Encoding/decoding- tv programs designed to reach widest audience Perspectives: 1. transmission/Weaver- not social- transportation (sender-message- receiver) -critique: not enough context/social factors, has no shared field of social knowledge (customs, family, values…) 2. social/cultural- diagram (clockwise from top) message is the medium –decoding (interpreting) using own personal history and background how consume the media shared field of social knowledge (context, social customs) institutions/organizations (media/productions) and the professionals working in those companies –encoding (creates message) political and economic factors (laws, regulations) [everything influences how put out the message] going back to the message itself -critique: too complex to get a solid understanding Signification- the process of creating “signs’ (anything that you can read meaning into- a cup, gestures, written words, images…) Semiology or semiotics= the study of signs and sign systems Signifier- what you see (/hear/feel…) ex chalk on board Signified- what it stands for (aka referent) ex tree Introduction to Communication Page 7 of 15 Types of signs: 1. icon= direct representation (looks like the thing –photo, map) 3. Index= indicates something (associated with its object- smoke = fire) 4. Symbol=has nothing to do with what representing (arbitrary/abstract relationship- no direct connection between what see and what it represents. language, written words, ad of woman in beer clothes) Text: any collection of sign from which meaning is made (book, TV show, film, radio, sky, map…) Mix and match signifiers to create signs with new/different meaning (underwear; beer ad) The struggle over how to signify different people and events can have strong consequences (who’s a terrorist?) Some perspective on content (encoding)- how meaning is put into messages or how content is generated -literary criticism (auteur –French for author-theory) emphasis son the role of the author, ides in the story or text originate with the author) -structuralism –production of meaning- semiotics-signs, signifier- and post-structuralism: emphasis not on the individual, but on the larger social context/structure (history) -political economy: emphasizes the ways in which political and economic forces enable and constrain the production, distribution, and consumption of media messages -media resources are used-politically and economically (US programming- economy of scale-capitalist society where profit is the driving motive…) -discourse analysis: focuses on how language, as a system of representation, provides us with a particular perspective or position in the world (Oct.30) Tutorial- Communication Models/Theory III: Audience Seminar -audience can cause product to be popular or not, how widespread certain ideologies can become -audiences’ active processes: cognition - consumption during which we attend to and make sense of the world and decoding- interpreting the meaning of medium (uses differently than producers intended) Function of the media (functionalism/gratification model): social and individual Social: surveillance, correlation (explanation, interpretation, comments on meaning of information/events), transmission, entertainment, mobilization Individual: information, personal identity, integration & social interaction (wanting to learn about others’ situations), entertainment (escape, relax) Social Psychology of Consumption (why act, reactions) observes the various dimensions of the individual’s psychological state. Introduction to Communication Page 8 of 15 -audiences use media to provide to produce emotional experiences for themselves -“Affective Dimension” –mood, emotions, pleasure media products manipulate emotions- use emotions to make you want to buy things… Emotional Realism- media content (books, magazines, TV, music, movies) can make you smile, laugh, cry, scared- can use media
More Less

Related notes for COMN 1000

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.