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York University
Communication Studies
COMN 2111
Dalton Kehoe

Communication in Everyday Life Lecture – September 21st, 2013 We communicate to reduce uncertainty We are wired for predictability The Perfect Communicator Model  Communication as info transmission o Lies behind all of our talk  “I told you once so you should get it the way I meant it.”  “Now act accordingly”  If not, I’ll say it again the exact same way – possibly louder  I am telling you the right thing, I am using the right words, I am the perfect communicator, it is YOU who is not correct because YOU don’t understand ME  “If you still don’t get what I’m trying to say to you, then you’re the idiot”  If you understand your audience and you say things the right way at the right time, you will only have to say it once and they will get it o Model of high certainty Social Scientific Approach: Communication as Probable Outcomes  In 1949 basic modern model by Shannon and Weaver o Sender – Is the message being sent loud enough o Message – Soft voice? Loud Voice? o Channels o Receiver  SMCR Model  They added noise or interference as a concept o Like talking on a cellphone in an elevator and the signal disappears o The concept is that every time you talk on a phone, it is less probable they will get the message o This is the same concept for face-to-face communication o Interference gets in the way of the message the person is trying to communicate o Reduces Certainty o Communication is about probability. “Someone will get your message if…”  Noise o Anything that distorts or interferes with message reception is noise o Physical – Something that interferes with physical transmission of message (Like a loud truck driving by when you’re trying to tell someone something) o Psychological – “In-the-head” interferences (other thoughts, biases, prejudices) o Semantic – No sharing of meaning (symbol-referents). Doctors speaking to patients. A language the patient clearly doesn’t understand even though they both speak English.  Channels o Auditory – get some of the message through your ears o Visual o Olfactory – smell o Gustatory – taste o Tactile – o We use these 5 channels separately or in combination  Encoding o A sender converts ideas into symbols that comprise a message. o We have to take a picture in our mind and find a way to convert it so people can see it as an effort to connect to them o Makes a prediction about the receiver  Decoding o Assigning meaning in the role of receiver to message symbols generated by the sender o Converting it to something that actually means something to the receiver o Does it look anything like what the sender was seeing when they transmitted that message to you? Communication as Interaction  It should seem obvious that even a telephone conversation requires feedback  Communication is no longer just the action but the action and the reaction: feedback loop  It clarifies elements of encoding-decoding o Skills, attitudes o Values, knowledge o Social systems, culture o These are not noise, but elements of message construction  “Meanings are in people”  Communication as transaction o Communication is more
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