Class Notes (809,444)
Canada (493,713)
York University (33,568)
Criminology (771)
CRIM 1650 (223)
Lecture 7

CRIM 1650 Lecture 7: Sociological Theories (Part 2)

6 Pages
Unlock Document

York University
CRIM 1650
James Williams

Sociological Theories Part 1 (week 7 – Oct. 25) Social Bond Theory – cont. Criticisms & Limitations  Failure to account for the motivation to deviate o Everyone has incentive to engage in crime o Criminal activity isn’t a product of distinct motivation – it is common for everyone o This theory doesn’t account for why individuals have motivation to commit crime  Assumption that individuals involved in crime lack social bonds o Attachment (and being bonded to a certain social group) facilitates certain behaviour o Peer attachment disorder: “the greatest disorder of our time”  Young people have an abnormally strong attachment to their peer group  Has negative implications with school system, performance in school, and family  Strong relationship to peer group = criminal tendencies? o Results of a presence of a bond to society (ex. Sexual violence)  Ex. Patriarchal society, traditional roles of women and men  Ex. Domestic violence = bond to society*  Ex. White collar crime can be caused by competitive corporate activities o Conformity is the problem  Neglect of structural variables and their impact on social bonds o Social bond theory is an assertive approach and focuses (almost exclusively) on family & involvement in crime o The importance of parenting o Important to recognize how an individual’s ability to parent children can influence the larger social structure which we find ourselves in  Ex. Poverty: has a negative impact on the ability to parent (working multiple part time jobs, temporary housing) o “it is not the structure rather the stresses on family relationships that can cause violence involving youth” Limitations  Goetting, 1994: 184) o Effective parenting is impeded by larger stresses  Economic financial pressures, government programs (Welfare to work – showing in documentary) o Welfare to work programs do not function well bc they take parents away from children therefore lack of parenting = increase in criminal/ violence in youth Differential Association Theory (Edwin Sutherland, 1939)  White collar and corporate crime  Process of bonding to learning (Hirschi – Sutherland)  “principles of criminology” Underlying Principles: 1. crime is a behaviour that is learned through interactions with significant others  the idea that crime was learned was revolutionary  claimed that crime was not due to biology or psychology but could be influenced by poverty – not a determining factor causing crime  causes of crime are not due to poverty or psychological influences rather it is peer groups  peer groups are essential in understanding criminal behaviour 2. what differentiates criminals from non-criminals is differential exposure to deviant peer groups and opportunities for social learning  differential association: associating with delinquent peer groups, we are more likely to behave similarly and vice versa  challenges the idea that violence on tv can be used to understand crime irl (traditional idea – media causes crime) 3. individuals must learn both the techniques necessary for committing crimes and the justifications which support this activity  we are not born with the capacity to commit crime rather it is learned  Techniques: need for knowledge and information needed to commit certain crimes (ex. Robbing a bank, how to pick a bank, how to approach the teller, etc)  Connection back to rational choice  Techniques are learned through deviant peer groups (ex. Selling drugs; learned through interaction with peers who sell drugs and that was passed on)  Skills learned through word of mouth (friendship networks, etc) to pass along techniques and other info.  Justifications: include definitions views/beliefs which support and justify criminal activity (rationalization)  people become delinquent because of the definition of violations against the law?  Delinquents will justify their crime 4. Differential associations vary in terms of frequency (how often groups interact with groups that encourage delinquency),  duration (length of exposure to these influences/how long the interaction lasts),  priority (especially strong influence of the contacts that are made earlier in life, ex. Parents, childhood friends – especially strong b/c they are made early in life)  influence of relationships formed during early stages of life  intensity (prestige/ status of the group/ individual within that group)  sources within peer groups that have a status associated with them  ex. Parents: are viewed highly by children therefore, they have authority/ their influence is stronger (looking up to those kinds of individuals) 5. Applicability to a range of crime type  It can be applied to a variety of different crime types  First major theories that can be applied to white-collar and corporate crime b/c of the emphasis of interaction rather than biological or psychological association  Rooted in process of learning and can be applied to all crimes  Understanding criminal behaviour exclusive from biological and psychological theories Policy Implications  Prevent or reduce exposure to deviant peer groups o Prevent or reduce the exposure through a variety of programs of initiatives that trains young people to resist peer pressure and identify with pro-social role models  Mentoring programs – the idea of establishing a connection with another individual who was involved with the wrong crowd who got out of that aka a mentor o The relationship with the mentor may challenge the justification o Personal and social skills training  To avoid negative interactions with peer groups o After school programs  Challenges justifications for criminal behaviour o Resistance skills training initiative  “say no to drugs” programs – DARE  attempts to highlight the various harms associated with using drugs  steers youth away from drug use o target exposure and challenge justifications Criticisms & Limitations  Inability to explain crimes committed by those who are isolated
More Less

Related notes for CRIM 1650

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.