Policy Implications of String Theory:
Pathways to education- has been applied throughout Canada
Strain Theory (Slide 3)
1. Greater emphasis on family, religion. Public education campaigns can be used
2. Increase access to legitimate goals and opportunities. Education is a fundamental part of
this. Nutrition is important for school success. School readiness such as interpersonal
and social skills, skills that are designed to build self-confidence that allow them to
interact with one another. These show beneficial transitions from elementary to high
school. Success in school is important in shaping one’s life.
1. How class positions restricts people from being successful in life. You can look at
gender, race, sexuality, religion. The way society influences us can have implications on
2. If you come from a particular class position you have these goals which you have to
achieve, which then leads to strain, and then crime. Strain doesn’t really account for
differential responses to strain. People respond to strain in different ways
3. A consensus model of crime. Crime is taken for granted. The focus is on the Criminal
Code. What is defined in crime is in criminal law. It is a consensus based approached to
the definition of crime. One of the fundamental differences is that it doesn’t take into
account differences and inequalities. It doesn’t explain why we view some things as
crimes and not others. This is a neglect of social conflict.
1. Our model of society changes significantly. Society is understood as being defined by
conflict. Conflict is an inevitable part of our social reality. How our involvement in groups
exist in terms of relationship in conflict.
2. The roots of this approach is from Karl Marx-Marxism. Marx was interested in the
economy, especially the capitalist economy. How the economy transformed people’s
daily lives, relationships with their work and others. This is a system of economic
organization that involves private ownership that incudes property and enterprise.
Second is the production of goods and services based on the market; the relationship of
supply and demand. The market is central to capitalist production Third is the produce of
profit. Investments in technology provides mass production since technology is cheaper
than workers. Producing on a large scale, allows you to reduce the costs of each
individual. “economic scale”. Inexpensive inputs such as cheap labour and materials.
Environmental regulations. Such as labour being in Bangladesh instead of China since it
is cheaper there.
3. a) This includes capital, actual cash you would invest in economy, plants, machinery,
and equipment. Anything that is required for the means of production. b) Capitalists pay labourers less than the value of their work, that is the basis of profit
and exploitation and oppression of workers. Failure to pay workers fairly for the value of
their work. In the US, the top 1% of the population owns 35% of the wealth in the US.
The top 20% own 85% of the wealth. The wealth gap has increased. In 2008, the
average of the top 10% of Canadians is 103 000. Which is 10 times that of the bottom
10% with an average income of 10 000$. It used to be 8 to 1, now it is 10 to 1. And this
is because of temporary part time work which provides less income and stability.
4. It is the state that is represented by criminal law and criminal justice representatives
that protect the capitalist class by controlling the workers, those who are relatively powerless.
Surplus population: refers to those that are unemployed. Unemployment in our society is
necessary. There has to be a certain level of employment in order for the capitalist system to
work. So you have a reserved labour force which can be used to replace workers who are
working. This allows workers to work for cheaper wages. If a worker complains or demands
more wages, they can be replaces.
This creates a problem because the people who are jobless have no means of income so they
have to resort to crime such as drug trades, sex trades, etc. Also, this group isn’t attached to
mainstream society so this action can be destructive with anti-capitalist challenges. Surplus
unemployment is seen as a threat because these indiv