Friday December 13 9:00 rexall complex tennis court? :S
Capitalist Economic System
Strategies of Survival
Strategies of Resistance Criminal Law
Majority of crime is still performed by men
2. Property crime, there is a consistency for female violent crimes, girls represent about under
5% of youth charged with homicide offences. Girls are more likely than boys to murder family
members out of interpersonal conflict rather than during the commission of a crime. Pushing
shoving, etc is used by girls, rather than serious violent crime. Women’s rates have more than
doubled in common assault, men’s had declined, this narrows the gender gap.
3. There may be increasing societal reactions to “crimes”. Because of this, this has increase
rated of reporting, which has nothing to do with the true rates of crime. Mandatory arrest
legislation: for a police officer responding to a case of domestic violence, in order for a charge to
be laid, it would have been part of a subsequent arrest. If there was evidence of physical injury,
the police could have made an arrest. There was an increase in level 1 common assault due to
changing policing policy.
4. There has been an increase in women involved with drug crimes. They receive roles that are
highly susceptible to arrest, such as delivering the drugs.
5. History of abuse and prior episodes of victimization. There is a connection between female
criminality and the status of women (offender vs. victim)
Baselines for rates of crime for women are so low, that if it goes up slightly, the percentages are
high, though crime hasn’t really significantly increased.
1. He developed one of the earliest and influential theories of crime, also acknowledged
female criminality. He made the masculinity thesis: 1) there are fewer female criminals
since women are primitive, less intelligent than men, more passive and . He believed
that women who were criminals possessed masculine traits such as physical and
biological characteristics similar to men. Female criminals are masculine, so therefore
they are biologically abnormal according to him. Females were viewed as especially evil.
2. He proposed a book on the causes of female crime. Women tended to commit specific
types of offences including fraud, forgery, embezzlement, and prostitution. He then
reason that each of these crimes shares something in common: deception, manipulation,
cunning. These offences and women’s involvement in these crimes show the view of
stereotypical women. These traits have a biological foundation. This foundation was the
ability of women to fake orgasm. He also argued that menstruation & pregnancy were
dangerous times for them. The difference for male and female criminality had to with
chivalry. Female criminality is much more prevalent due to the chivalrous responses by
The emphasis is on sex rather than gender in both these theories.
Women’s liberation thesis: The observed convergence, increase in rates of female
crimes in the 60s and 70s were attributed by role convergence. It was a reflection of
entry of women into the workforce and the equalization of opportunities for women,
3. Since female crime was increasing, they had to assume the increase of female
criminality increased more than it actually did. Much of the increase was due to
traditional female crime such as shoplifting, welfare fraud, rather than embezzlement or
white collar crimes. Contrary to this idea of women being in higher status position, many
female offenders were unemployed with limited education. They were poor, non-white
racialized women were more likely to be present in arrest data in the 60s and 70s. The
white offender didn’t fit in here.
4. She is well respected and made a significant contribution to contemporary views of
a) This view of female criminals as being pathological, violent, abnormal, continues to
the present day. The movie Monster.
b) There is a failure to account the unique contexts and