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Lecture 18

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CRIM 1650
James Williams

Corporate and White-Collar Crime Slide 1 1. The normalization of deviance- how it unfolds in corporate and white collar crime. What allows for corporate crimes to be normalized? 2. The difference between white collar crime and corporate crime. 3. Especially in terms of women. 4. Objective harm tends to be much lower than perceived harm. In this case, the objective harm outweighs the perceived harm. 5. 3 individual case studies. 3 documentaries or videos WHICH WILL BE ON THE EXAM! Slide 2 2. In the way economic and political resources can be applied to the amplification of deviance, we can see how these same resources can be used to resist the application of law. Particulary referring to corporate economic elite. Normalization of crime: The process through which activities are minimized or downplayed, it is not defined as a crime, it is normalized and decriminalized. 3. Power is exercised in two points: 1) in laws that are actually passed such as legislations. Political lobbying becomes important here. Even if legislations are passed, efforts are made to water down these legislations and look for loop holes that will limit its extent and reach. 2) Enforcement- deciding how laws should be enforced, how corporate power is exercised. The revolving door – the corruption of the regulatory process. 4. “Normalization of Deviance” Flexibility of Law Criminal Non-Criminal Prostitution and Drug Offenses Criminal Civil Regulatory Ethical Violation Corporate and White-Collar Crime “Crimes” versus “Offenses” “Immoral” versus “Unethical” 6. The disconnect between objective harm and perceived harm. Slide 3 – Definition of Terms 1. White – Collar (Occupational) Crime. Individual phantom supplier: introduce a fake supplier into the books, provide false invoices, the company pays out the invoices, and the payment is then redirected to the employee. 2. Corporate (Organizational) Crime. Corporation False advertising: The primary beneficiary is the company by making unsubstantiating ways about the product. This boosts sales and revenues. 3. Economic Crime. Independently They may target corporations such as hacking schemes. Economic crimes more frequently target individuals. This includes scams and fraud. Examples include: The lottery scam & US Army Scam Slide 4 1. Edmund Sutherland – differential theory. 1940s: introduction of white collar crime. Sutherland was the founder of the inquiry of white collar. He coined white collar crime on December 1939 in a speech he made. 1900-1944 – a violation of series of laws in relation to US corporations. This included false advertising and unfair labour practices. Sutherland was interested in these laws. He collected 980 decisions about the 70 largest US corporations. He noticed that only 158 (16%) had criminal responsibility. The rest were pursued through non-criminal sanctions such as junction and desist orders and civil law suits. Criminal sanctions were an option to pursue them but many decided not to go down that route. Because of this, he adopted a different and broader definition of white collar crime – as long as 2 criteria are satisfied: 1) the activity was legally prohibited, there was a law that prohibited the activity that described social injurious. 2) the activity was covered by a legal penalty. It didn’t have to be a criminal conviction; it could have just been a fine. Sutherland used this broader definition and found 779 were guilty of committing crimes. Sutherland used a sociological perspective and was treated as a recommendation for the legal system. 2. Corporate harm: risk, safety, concepts like these become essential. 3. Corporate crimes scholars rely on court cases such as civil court cases. The most significant source of info will be from data from regulatory agencies. This shows which companies have been charged with violations of environmental laws and health and safety laws. This is a problem and a significant limitation. 4. Corporations are private actors, by law they are defined as individuals. You have to ask whether to enter their property and interview their employees. Deceptive measures can be used to bend corporate crime boundaries. Late 70s, mid 1
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