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Canada (510,370)
York University (35,409)
Criminology (771)
CRIM 1650 (223)


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CRIM 1650
James Williams

Criminology lecture 4 Self-report studies features 1. Phone surveys or written questionnaires asking individuals about their past involvement in various forms of criminal behaviour 2. Valuable source of information for victimless crimes such as drug use 3. Independent of police and citizen reporting crimes - goes directly to sources, not replying on one to report a crime or file a police report Limitations 1. Inaccurate or incomplete reporting - may not define what was done as the criminal -people don’t report things that aren’t defined in questions 2. Reporting bias - males are more likely to under-report involvement in crime (gender bias) crimes such as aggression and assault 3. No independent measure of validity Patterns of crime in Canada 1. Crime rate comparable to what it was in 1973 hasn’t been increasing like media suggests 2. Majority of crimes are non-violent 3. Majority of violent crimes are perpetrated by a non-stranger 4. Most crimes do not involve the use of a weapon or involve serious injury 5. What are the chances of being a victim of a crime? - women- sexual assault -men- assault - 15-24 yrs are at the highest risk -single -unemployed, student - engaging in night activities, bars restaurants , working at night - low income- less than k 15,000 -urban areas The use and abuse of crime statistics 1. Role of statistics in claims-making - the process in which people demand immediate social problems -solved by interventions -forms new laws 2. Forms of abuse - use of statistics in a way that supports points, which creates distortion and inaccurate stats - use of aggregate measures - some stats will talk about violent crimes, and how its increasing when in reality, there are many subcategories of violent crimes that increase but are less violent like level 1 assault, therefore the stats are misinterpreted - manipulation of time frame - choosing years where crime has increased, so that the image of crime in constant increase is presented and perceived - neglect of changes in definition of crime and or data - employment of false or deceptive formats crime clock--. Implies the risk of crimes is evenly distributed 3. Missing children - 85%% of cases are runaways, 10% abducted by family member -15,000 abducted in the US every reported crime or attempted kidnapping or kidnapping by a non-relative - 20% were not kidnapped -97% were missing for less than 24h - molestation or sexual assault more appropriately viewed as sex crimes new definition: children who are killed or who are missing overnight reduced 15,000 to 550 If strangers are looked a
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