CRIM 2650 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Social Disorganization Theory, Social Change, Complex Number

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Published on 15 Nov 2017
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Thursday, November 2, 2017
CRIM 2650
Lecture #8!
Overview
introduction
historical background
the city of Chicago
Chicago school of sociology
main theorists
park and Burgess
shaw and Mckay
Sutherland
policy implications
the Chicago school’s legacy in criminological research
Sampson
anderson
Akers
Kornhauser
Introduction: Main Themes
environmental factors and crime
environmental factors shape crime and criminal behaviour
focus on the city and Neighbourhoods
influence of Durkheim
how rapid social change, migration and urban growth result in disorganization
influencing Merton
crime as a social and structural problem
social policies to tackle the social root cause of crime
Introduction: Main Themes II
influencing subcultural theories
subcultural theorists (e.g. Cohen, , Cloward & Ohlin combine Strain Theory with Chicago
School) to examine youth delinquency in neighbourhoods
Ecological Model
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Thursday, November 2, 2017
Social change, mobility, urban growth, characteristics of the residents and
neighbourhoods in the city
Social Disorganization Theory
Social disorganization creates crime.
Transitional slum areas have higher rates of crime
Main Theorists
Classical Chicago School Theorists
Robert Park
Clifford R. Shaw
Edwim H. Sutherland
Ernest Burgess
Henry D. McKay
Theorists following the Chicago School Tradition
Robert Sampson
Ruth R. Kornhauser
Elijah Anderson
Ronald Akers
Historical Background: City of Chicago in late 1800s and early 1900s
rapid population growth
4,000 in the early 1830s, 1 million 1890 and more than 2 million in 1910
migrants from different parts of Europe seeking economic seeking economic prosoects,
blacks from the south seeking racial tolerance
harsh economic realities and working conditions
absence of social agencies to regulate the problems created by rapid urbanization
result: breakdown of controls or anomie
The Progressive Movement in Chicago
Social reforms to handle the problems caused by rapid industrialization and urbanization
Changing the environment through providing social services to the poor and newcomers
Education, healthcare, community centres, settlement houses, reformatories
State as an enabler and administrator of social reforms
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Thursday, November 2, 2017
Criminal justice reforms: establishment of juvenile courts, individual treatment of
offenders, increased use of experts (e.g. psychiatric, psychological, sociological)
The Chicago School of Sociology and Human Ecology
Robert E. Park (1864 -1944)
Human Ecology: Similarities between plant life and human life:
Symbiotic relationships
Complex division of labor and mutual interdependency
Invasion, dominance and succession
Gentrification
Burgess’ Concentric Zone Model
Shaw and McKay’s Research on Delinquency Areas of Chicago I
Shaw and McKay empirically confirmed the concentric zone model of Burgess.
Delinquency rates are higher in transition zones and lower in more affluent zones.
The nature of the neighborhood, not individuals/groups within the neighbourhood,
regulated involvement in crime
Each ethnic/racial group have both high and low rates of delinquency, depending
on where they live.
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