Class Notes (807,458)
Canada (492,633)
York University (33,498)
Criminology (771)
CRIM 2650 (97)
Anita Lam (58)

2650 L4.docx

9 Pages
Unlock Document

York University
CRIM 2650
Anita Lam

Foucault, part II Lecture Overview 1. Brief recap 2. Discipline and Punish  Sovereign power vs. disciplinary power  Disciplinary techniques  Contemporary examples of disciplinary power 3. Limitations Brief Recap –different from Durkheim and Marxist –he gave us a sense of how to analyse actual strategies of power in society and how they operate  Focus: strategies/techniques of power and how they operate  Power is fluid, strategic relation – shifting power relations because power for him was a strategic relation rather than an eternal possession. Thus, power existed everywhere because everyone in society could exercise power and be subjected to it. Power is not exclusively exercised by the state or ruling class. Power is not a zero-sum game.  Forms of power – qualitatively distinct because they look different, and have different techniques and affects.  Power is productive— produce knowledge, pleasure, discourse, identities, and bodies  Power-knowledge—power and knowledge is inseparable. Discipline and Punish  Public execution of regicide in picture below—if you committed a regicide you are being punished for the crime of killing the king or having attempted to do so. This is an image of an attempted assassination and punishment of it. It is geared towards destroying the body of a condemned man, through a display of authorized violence. Authorized violent is quite excessive—the man’s body was being drawn and ordered—pulling of your limbs in your body and his body gets burned. In this authorized display form of violence, it’s focused on destroying the body. That is one style of punishment. The other is an institutional timetable. Tables were used to set out a schedule that would regulate the daily lives of inmates. This punishment is private and occurs without signs of physical violence or ceremony. The contrast is tied to a historical shift from sovereign power, to disciplinary power (use of schedule). This shift was thought to have occurred between 18 -19 century. th  Once disciplinary power emerged in the 19 century, it replaced sovereign power. Disciplinary emerged and co-existed with forms of sovereign power  Vs. institutional timetable used in Paris reformatory  Historical shift from sovereign power to disciplinary power  Co-existence Sovereign Power—aim to preserve sovereign authority. Form of power Sovereign Power Form(at) of knowledge Juridical rules— classify an act in binary terms. We see this at work in the Criminal code. An act is morally good or it is not. There is no in-between Key aim Preserving sovereign authority— When we have a crime it signifies an attack on the sovereign punishment on warlike terms. We need to produce terror to remind citizens of unrestrained power behind the law. Key personnel State officials—carry out tasks aimed at carrying out key logics of Forms of power. Key logics Punishment as key technique internally Warfare as key technique externally Typical technique Spectacle—does not always have to be punitive. Spectacles of punishment Like tortures, it was due to a distribution of visibility—what is visible and What is invisible. In a spectacle we have many people watching the one (sovereign) is visible. But the many watching are (invisible). Key target Loyal subjects—key target to sovereign power. Aims to produce this loyal subject through the public spectacle of public punishment. In this spectacle, subjects are terrorized by state officials into following the juridical rules that are set down by the sovereign. (summary of whole chart) Disciplinary power Form of power Discipline Form(at) of knowledge Norm – there are 3 meanings of norms. Foucault means all of these 3 meanings. 1. Clinical norm—normal and abnormal 2. Statistical norm—average of distribution of grades 3. Moral norm— Socially/morally acceptable in society Key aim Constituting individuals— key aim of disciplinary power. We do this Through the process of normalization. Key personnel Experts— While sovereign power Is carried out by state officials, the key personal. Experts like doctors Key logics Normalization— occurs through material and spatial arrangements. Typical technique Observation, examination, surveillance – (surveillance is opposite spectacle) under surveillance one or the Few are watching the many. There are few observers than observed. We want to put you under constant observation because We are interested in creating self-controlled disciplined bodies. Key target Disciplined individuals 3 Implications of the historical shift from sovereign power to disciplinary power 1. Both forms of power continue to co-exist. Disciplinary power does not completely displace and replace sovereign power.  E.g. criminal justice system: verdict, sentence –verdict that a judge renders is a exercise of sovereign power because it takes the form of a juridical form (guilty or not guilty), rendered by a state official that happens to be the judge, we preserve sovereign authority, because that verdict is followed by punishment. The only difference is that we don’t have public punishments anymore. IN CONSTRAST, the sentence is disciplinary power because the sentence should normalize the offender, so they have self-control so they stop committing crime.  E.g. classroom: expulsion/suspension, exam – exam is disciplinary power because it is a technique of disciplinary power. You are under constant surveillance (many teachers are watching you write the exam). Normalizes you in statistical norm to be disciplined individuals. IN CONSTRAST, expulsion is sovereign power for cheating
More Less

Related notes for CRIM 2650

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.