Class Notes (809,756)
Canada (493,780)
York University (33,568)
Criminology (771)
CRIM 2650 (97)
Anita Lam (58)

2650 L1.docx

9 Pages
Unlock Document

York University
CRIM 2650
Anita Lam

Social construction and Symbolic Interactionism, Part II Lecture Overview 1. Assignments 2. Brief recap 3. Erving Goffman and Stigma 4. Stanley Cohen and Moral Panic Sample Script  Moderator: We will begin our discussion of whether we should continue to hold formal criminal trials for your offenders with a noted contemporary deterrence theorist. Why should we stop holding formal trials?  Contemporary deterrence theorist: In order to function as effective general deterrence, punishment needs to be public in order to prevent would-be offenders from committing a similar kind of crime. While punishment needs to be public, it does not need to be formal. So I don’t think that a formal trial is necessary because formal sanctions or legal costs are less effective at deterring crime than the use of informal sanctions (e.g. when significant others, such as families and friends, direct their disapproval, anger and indignation towards an offender). Research finds that people are far more influenced by the non-legal costs of committing crime, especially the negative reactions of family and friends, than they are of the reactions of the criminal justice system (Lily et al., 2011: 348). Referencing: in-text citation (Author’s last name, year of publication: page #) use in text citations. No need of bibliography Braithwaite: I also agree that we should cease holding formal trials.Aformal trial is a ceremony that operates on disintegrative shaming. Such shaming serves to stigmatize (i.e. label the offender as deviant and criminal) and exclude offenders, ultimately creating a class of outcasts. As outcasts, these offenders will continue to re-offend either through the development of criminal subcultures or illegal opportunity structures (i.e. they have been blocked from legitimate opportunities as a result of their criminal record). Moderator: Mr. Durkheim, you are silent. Have you nothing to say on the matter?  Durkheim: I have not said anything because I disagree with the question altogether. There are many reasons why it is absurd to discontinue the use of formal criminal trials. The courtroom trial remains a public penal ritual or ceremony in which judges give formal expression to the collective conscience (i.e. the feelings of the community and society). By being expressed in court, the collective conscience is symbolically re- affirmed, which has the effect of re-affirming social solidarity as well as informing the members of the law-abiding public about the moral boundaries of our society. Beccaria • First 5 relevant points from his theory 10 • Each point is illustrated with an example from the novel Durkheim • First 5 relevant points from his theory 10 • Each point is illustrated with an example from the novel Foucault • First 5 relevant points from his theory 10 • Each point is illustrated with an example from the novel Theorist of choice • First 5 relevant points from his/her 10 (must be a major theory theorist taught in • Each point is illustrated with an this course) example from the novel. Quality of writing • Spelling and grammar are correctly 10 used (5 marks) • Analysis is well-written: well- organized and coherent (3 marks) • Assignment follows instructions (2 marks): within page constraints, proper formatting, etc. Book: PROXY Beccaria—how do contracts come into his theory? Social contract—origin point for society.And the social contract is what lifts us out of the state of nature. What is an example in the book about versions of the state of nature? Durkheim— the most advanced society is held together by contractual solidarity. Contracts can be seen after society has evolved sufficiently into an advanced form. What is an example that demonstrates its highly advanced? Division of labour. Find an example where people are not performing the sae jobs and do not have the same value systems. • You can ask 5 questions and have all 4 theorists touch on them or just 1 different question each • Intro and concluding remarks 2. Brief Recap  Labelling theory: social process theory  Societal reaction to crime  Social construction (vs. postitivistic/scientific theory)  No acts/people are inherently criminal. Crime and criminals are socially constructed phenomena. They do not simply exist, but are made.  Symbolic interactionism: people communicate and interact with each other through symbols (e.g. words, gestures, labels, etc.)  E.g. Looking-glass self 3. Erving Goffman  Self presentation: the attempt to present who we are, or who we want people to believe we are, through our words, nonverbal behaviours and actions –the point of this is that we present ourselves in particular ways in order to maintain other peoples impressions of us. It is related to impression management.  Impression management: our conscious or unconscious orchestration of a carefully designed presentation of self, so as to create a certain impression that fits our goals or needs in a social interaction Dramaturgical model of social interaction –he believes the entire world is a stage. We can use theater as a metaphor for everyday social life.  Theatre as a metaphor for social life  Frontstage: actively presenting particular self to others (for ex: first date, job interviews)  Backstage: not actively managing or creating a particular impression (for ex: bad habits)  Social identity (course reader p. 157) –personal, structural attributes Stigma  Refers to the process by which the reaction of other people ‘spoils’normal identity –how do we manage the impression of a spoiled identity.  Discrepancy between virtual and actual social identity—who other think you are, and who you think you are.  The situation of an individual who is disqualified or rejected from full social acceptance due to the possession of a deeply discrediting attribute. 3 in total:  Bodily abominations and physical deformities  Weaknesses of individual character (for ex: interested in sexually deviant practices) stigmatize people with weak moral character  Culturally related: Race, nation and religion  Someone seen as possessing a stigma is considered someone that has an undesired differentness from what we expect. Reacting to stigma  Face-to-face interactions: mixed contacts (course reader p. 162) 1963’s virtual social identity never referred to online social identities because there was no internet back then.  How do normals react to stigmatized people? Normal beli
More Less

Related notes for CRIM 2650

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.