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Criminal Justice System - Lecture #6

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CRIM 2652
Scot Wortley

CJS LECTURE #6 – Policing October 11 , 2012 ‘Policing’ vs. ‘The Police’ - Policing: the act of maintaining and reproducing social order  Ex. professor polices the classroom – it is everywhere, informal efforts - The police: institutions or individuals given the right by the state  May use coercive force in order to maintain and reproduce social order Historical Overview: 1) Pre-modern Policing: - Pre-Industrial England: Agricultural Kinship-based  Roots in England, agricultural based - Policing as a part-time, volunteer and communal responsibility  Communities policed themselves – no formal police  took care of self + kin  Hue and cry (13 century) – alarm system; see a crime, alert others  Tithing: group of 10 patrolling certain areas/times  Night watch – locals/ specific roles, more focused and organized  Informants: present their suspicions to the sheriffs  ‘watch and ward’ – more formalized than hue and cry  Specific members of society under instruction and constable  ‘thief-takers’ – offer to catch villains for a price  Problem: sent people to steal things, get paid, shared the $  These were all locally organized, non-formal forms of policing - Industrial Revolution (18 and early 19 centuries)  Urbanization, kinships breaking down ties, corruption, ineffective  Bow Street Runners – uniforms, paid by Gov. – ‘thief-takers’ - British concerns about a police force:  Bourgeois fear of centralized power, threat to civil liberties (fear from above)  Uprising class  have money  don’t want to be controlled by Gov.  Working class fear of control of dissent, political repression (fear from below)  Police = class control 2) Emergence of the Peel Model of Modern Policing: the ‘new’ police - Metropolitan Police Act, 1829  ‘Father of Policing’ - Paramilitary:  Body of men, hierarchically organized  Allegiance to senior officers  Influenced by central government  Operate according to legal rules and procedures  Uniformed – to distinguish from the citizens - Peel’s Vision: crime prevention primary function  Various forms of theft, prostitution, etc.  Models of good conduct – to everyone, no bias - Peel’s Principles of Law Enforcement  Impartial service to the law (not class interests)  Professional distance – Principle #7, Peel  Represents everyone, even the ordinary (citizens of every race/ both sex)  Chosen carefully – appear accountable to law, government, and community 3) The Traditional/ Professional Model of Policing (20 Century) - Shift from crime prevention to crime fighting model:  The 3 R’s: random patrol, rapid responses and reactive investigation - More detached from communities  If they got too close – possibility of ‘corruption’; therefore, they adapt the detached manners  to act ‘professional’ - Emergence of patrol cars, 2-way radios  New technologies (cars)
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