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CRIM 2652 (100)

Criminal Justice System - Lecture #10

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CRIM 2652
Scot Wortley

Lecture #10 – Guest Speaker: Professor Scot Wortley on Racial Profiling in Canada (Definitions, Data and Policy Options) November 22 , 2012 Introduction: - Allegations of police bias in Canada existed since Confederation - Complaints about police discrimination  esp. with the Black and Aboriginal communities - Over past 2 decades – ‘racial profiling’ becoming esp. controversial issue - Police and Gov. officials dismissing allegations of systemic racism - Difficult to investigate racial bias  ex. bans on collection/ distribution of ‘race-crime’ stats. Definitional Issues: - Conflation of racial profiling with other forms of racial bias - Racial profiling: racial differences in exposure to criminal justice surveillance practices  Difference between ‘soft/hard’ profiling - Wortley’s Definition: members of certain races are subject to greater levels of CJ surveillance  When police activities cannot be explained Causes of Profiling: - Racial Animus Model - Cognitive Bias/ Stereotyping Model - “Risk” Model - Institutional Model - Police Deployment Model Consequences of Profiling - Undermines legitimacy of the CJS  perceptions of criminal/social injustice - Contributes to youth alienation in disadvantaged areas - Negatively impacts mental ‘heal’ of minority citizens - Reduces trusts in police  damaging police investigations - Contributes to criminal behaviour Documenting Police Activity - Qualitative data (personal interviews, community meetings, etc.) - Observational data, surveys, official police data - All types of data have strengths/ weaknesses – no need to use multiple methods for same issues Benchmarking Issue - Census benchmarking - Observational benchmarking - Behavioural benchmarking - Neighbourhood benchmarking - Hit rates - Internal benchmarking Multivariate Analyses: - 1994 Survey:  Statistically controlled (age, gender, education, class, immigration stats, etc.)  Blacks still 2x more likely to experience a single stop, 4x more likely for multiple stops, 7x more likely to experience an ‘unfair’ stop  Therefore: age and social class do not protect Blacks from police stops - 2000 YCVS  Controlled for social class, leisure activities, gang members, drug/alcohol use, etc.
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