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Canada (509,920)
York University (35,328)
Criminology (771)
CRIM 2652 (100)
Anna Pratt (38)

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CRIM 2652
Anna Pratt

Dasha’s notes Who Constitutes the Community? Majority Decision (moodle quotes) • Dissenting judgment prioritize the harms that legislation entails for prostitutes • HIV aids, aboriginal organizations, religious groups : these can act as interveners in the case • There are groups who have mixed views: think that criminalization is important • Views that exist today about prostitution are diverse • Impact of morality based concerns • Criminalization of prostitution is governed by concern of public dimensions and effects which is connected to the economic interests of certain groups Today's class : 1. Historical overview of policing a. Pre-modern b. Peel model of public police c. Traditional/professional crime fighting model 2. Roles and powers of police today 3. Test • Police- most visible agents of CJS, heroes of crime dramas • Police are often referred to as gatekeepers of the CJS • The work they do impacts the kinds of activities that are acted upon as criminal, what ppl are constituted as dangerous and which offences are prioritized, which 'fish get caught in net' or who gets into the 'funnel' Policing vs. the police Policing: act of maintaining and reproducing social order Police: institutions or individuals given the right by the state to use coercive force in order to maintain and reproduce social order • Ex: classroom the police is the prof and she can give you warnings to stop talking, also the way that the classroom is set up maintains social order (the desks projector set up) • Police are authorized to use force, can enter into private lives of citizens Historical Overview 1. Pre-modern policing • Pre-industrial England: Agricultural Kinship-based Communities • Policing as part-time, volunteer and communal responsibility Strategies: • Hue and Cry (13th century) o Witnesses felony are to join a chase and capture of offender o Institutionalized through 'watch and ward' (was surveillance based, and involved identifying community members that were part of the night watch and would survey the people in their community) o George Zimmerman and Trayvon Martin case  This case was further complicated by California's stand your ground law • Tithing • Informants • 'watch and ward' o Crime-stoppers o Vigilant citizens • Thief-takers Industrial Revolution (18th and early 19th centuries) • Urbanization • Kinship ties breaking down • Corruption • Uncoordinated, ineffective 1829: first police emerge in England • Resistance to having full-time police officers Resistance to Centralized Police Force • Bourgeois fear for centralized power, threat to civil liberties (fear fr. Above) • Working class fear of control of dissent, political repression (fear fr. Below) • There were a variety reasons as to why the creation of professional police force was resisted and they all have to do with class • The new bourgeois class of wealth producers that was tied up in capital and not in land ( they didn't want power in aristocracy) they wanted to be free so they can engage in entrepreneurial commerce of wealth. o Believed that rule of law would make people accountable and didn’t want anybody neither below or above the law • Working class was suspicious of police force because they were concerned that this organization would operate as mechanism of class control and oppression and would oppress political dissent. Peel Model of Modern Policing: the 'new' police • Metropolitan Police Act of 1829 • Sir Robert Peel Paramilitary • Body of men, hierarchically organized • Alledihfbgdmfnfbdmdnf • (get this shit off moodle) Peel's vision Objectives • Keep order • Prevent crime Key Principles • Discourage crime • Preventative patrol Impartial Agents of Legal System The Traditional / Professional model of policing (20th Century) • Shift fr. Crime prevention to crime fighting • Random patrol, rapid response and reactive investigation • More detached fr. Communities Impact of technology • Telephone box: had a telephone that was directly connected to popo station • Two-way radios • Cars: patrol cars provided significant advances, allowed to check on officers on patrol, and increased range of foot patrol officers, more immediate response. • Fingerprinting: investigation techniques impacted police practices not only in technical sense but also qualitative impact. Police as professional crime fighters. • Forensic scientists: • Shaft of police function of crime prevention to crime fighting o Remote and react strategies o This lead to the 911 system Professional Police Model: Crime Fighting • Hierarchical, para-military model • Focus on crime control arrests • Sub-culture: 'thin blue line' • Necessary autonomy • Cultivated aloofness and authoritarianism • Criticisms: costly, ineffective, strained rel'ps with racialized communities. Contemporary police • Federal gov't authorizes police, esp. power to arrest • Provincial- administer policing ( Ontario Police Services Act) • Municipalities - may establish local police forces, or contract with province or RCMP o RCMP are accountable to the federal government Police Duties 1. Crime control 2. Order maintenance 3. Social service Consensus: maintaining order is part of law enforcement and general protection Conflict: law enforcement is about maintaining a particular order; who gets "protection", who gets "ordered"? • Reactive and proactive policing Test Get off moodle Note- as you know, Prof sucks and some things I didn't get to copy off the slides because she either forgot to switch them or just went too fast for me to keep up with her .... sorry ☹ MAX’S NOTES Minority Decision -criminalization of prostitution provides rich real world example of criminal justice -morality still in play when talking about prostitution; not a dead subject -crim. of prost. viewed in a public dimension and its effects on the streets and society Policing -most visible and most contact with us in day to day lives -heroes of most popular crime dramas -“gatekeepers” of CJS (frontline) -conduct which kind of activities are criminal vs. not -who gets brought into the funnel of the CJS and which fish get caught Policing vs. The Police -policing: act of maintaining and reproducing social order -broader activity takes place everywhere by different agents -takes place in classrooms (teacher yells, looks
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