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York University
CRIM 3654
James Sheptycki

CRIM 3654 – FALL LECTURE NOTES th September 27 , 2013 Police and Policing - “policing in Canada…is evolving from a system in which public police provide almost all policing services, to one where a range of public and private agencies share responsibilities for many of these activities…we are witnessing not simply two-tiered policing but a continuum of agencies that are responsible for policing….in addition, the entire notion of policing (public and private) has increasingly been viewed as a commodity for sale in the marketplace” (LCC, p.37) - Three themes for the lecture: o 1) the difference between police and policing o 2) plural policing o 3) privatized policing - Example: education becomes an investment into your future, and as an investment it is something you technically buy. But this relationship changes the way you think about university education. This means students to think of themselves more as clients, and you speak of degrees as an investment. This means we are more interested in the end product, rather than the process by which that degree is achieved. By that reasoning, plagiarism makes sense. Rather than being a crime against the process, it becomes a strategy towards the end product. If we treat education as a commodity, it makes sense that people would purchase the means to getting that product o If you substitute the word security for the word education (if security becomes a commodity), similarly, what kind of changes does that effect in the way we think of ourselves, our relationship to that product, and to each other Police vs. Policing - This complexity opens up the opportunity to scrutinize these common sense ideas - The concept of policing long predates the activities of state police officers - Policing scholars encourage looking beyond England - In Europe, policing has had broader connotations o For much of the 17 to 18 century, the word policing related much more to the notion of “good government” o Germany: Polizie (good government)  1) conditions of good order  2) laws to ensure good order  3) Regulation of conduct tending to disorder  These aims could include monitoring public health, maintenance of roads, public security, etc  The craft of policing under this kind of regime had the broader mandate to create a good society o This mandate of policing is not only intimately tied to rise of capitalism, but even more specifically that the general order seen under above 3 aims is about prevention of the conditions of wealth – to make it possible for wealth producers to engage in activities  The disciplining of the labour force  Disorder is linked to unruly workers o Policing is productive – If we think of policing within this broader more policy-oriented term, it is considered more productive, constitutive – production of a disciplined labour force that doesn’t act as an obstacle to wealth producers And Contemporary Police/ing - Public Police o Federal (exclusive authority to enact criminal law and procedure), provincial (establish the administration of justice – courts, police services acts, etc.), municipal (constitute the police force) - Private Security o One of the characteristics of late 20 , early 21 century is proliferation of private security o The specific authority of private police is ambiguous o No legislation to distinguish between those in private security, and regular citizens o Private property is the legislation that gives private security their broadest mandate o Public police may arrest on reasonable and probable ground that an indictable offense has been or will be committed o Security guards must see an indictable offense before they can make an arrest o Private security has as broad rights as we do as regular citizens – we are all endowed with these rights o Provincial laws allow landowners to prescribe conditions as to how individuals are able to remain/arrive on property  “mass property” : property that is privately owned, but is publically used in the sense that most if not all members of the public are typically if not routinely invited to come without a fee  Massive re-organiza
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