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CRIM 3655 Lecture Notes - White-Collar Crime, Edwin Sutherland, Paradigm Shift

4 pages78 viewsFall 2013

Course Code
CRIM 3655
James Sheptycki

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October 29th, 2013
Global Policing and Environmental Crime
Green Criminology is the 3rd attempt at a great paradigm shift in criminological thought
- Paradigm Shifts can occur when:
o 1) descriptions of the ‘problem-solution’ no longer seem adequate or new ways of
‘seeing’ mean that the problem-solutions simply look different
o 2) new developments give rise to new problem0solutions that supersede the old ones
o 3) defenders of the old paradigm either acknowledge the superiority of the new
‘problem-solution’, or they simply die out
- Professional police officers share a set of problem solutions held in common (police subculture)
o Problems of how to be a professional police officer in a democratic society are
experienced collectively, so in a way our concept of subculture is kind of like a paradigm
- Paradigms were originally used to explain the behaviour of scientists
o Shifted from human-centric to the big bang theory
“…a new truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather
because its opponents eventually die, and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it” (Kuhn)
- Argued that social science can’t have paradigm shifts because we argue about everything
- However, professor argues we can talk about a dominant, foundational paradigm shift that
over-determines the conception of the intellectual project of criminology
o Essence of our paradigm in criminology is the causes of crime question (why they do it)
Focus on the individual offender
Common basis of the paradigm that makes up academic criminology
- Paradigm shifts are not just a matter of changing the way we look at things
- Paradigms are held in place by institutional powers
o Held in place by powerful set of interests
- The idea that the earth as a single living organism GIA (ancient greek)
o This hypothesis is contested that all the kinds of sciences will see them in terms of their
own scientific specialisms
o All sustained by political economy of research
o Science academies are institutions that want to keep you in your place a drag on
paradigmatic shifting
The First attempted Paradigm shift in criminology was the naming of White-Collar Crime by Edwin
Sutherland in 1949
- First time anyone attempted to document the crimes of the powerful
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