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York University
CRIM 3655
James Sheptycki

CRIM 3655 – FALL LECTURE NOTES th October 29 , 2013 Global Policing and Environmental Crime rd Green Criminology is the 3 attempt at a great paradigm shift in criminological thought - Paradigm Shifts can occur when: o 1) descriptions of the ‘problem-solution’ no longer seem adequate or new ways of ‘seeing’ mean that the problem-solutions simply look different o 2) new developments give rise to new problem0solutions that supersede the old ones o 3) defenders of the old paradigm either acknowledge the superiority of the new ‘problem-solution’, or they simply die out - Professional police officers share a set of problem solutions held in common (police subculture) o Problems of how to be a professional police officer in a democratic society are experienced collectively, so in a way our concept of subculture is kind of like a paradigm - Paradigms were originally used to explain the behaviour of scientists o Shifted from human-centric to the big bang theory “…a new truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents eventually die, and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it” (Kuhn) - Argued that social science can’t have paradigm shifts because we argue about everything - However, professor argues we can talk about a dominant, foundational paradigm shift that over-determines the conception of the intellectual project of criminology o Essence of our paradigm in criminology is the causes of crime question (why they do it)  Focus on the individual offender  Common basis of the paradigm that makes up academic criminology - Paradigm shifts are not just a matter of changing the way we look at things - Paradigms are held in place by institutional powers o Held in place by powerful set of interests - The idea that the earth as a single living organism  GIA (ancient greek) o This hypothesis is contested that all the kinds of sciences will see them in terms of their own scientific specialisms o All sustained by political economy of research o Science academies are institutions that want to keep you in your place – a drag on paradigmatic shifting The First attempted Paradigm shift in criminology was the naming of White-Collar Crime by Edwin Sutherland in 1949 - First time anyone attempted to document the crimes of the powerful - This is no longer about individuals - When he published his book he was called by the big companies threatening to sue if published  massive infringement on freedom of speech o Institutional resistance – when people try to create shifts in paradigmatic thinking - We don’t think of corporate crime is organized crime - The paradigmatic shift that Sutherland attempted was only partial Second attempted paradigm shift in criminological thought was advanced by William Chambliss - Naming of ‘State Organized Crime’ in his presidential address to the American Society of Criminology 1989 - Difficult to problematize the institution, the structure, the organization of the state as inherently criminogenic because our paradigm of criminology is all about individuals White collar crime and state organized crime are crimes of the powerful. They are also institutional and structural. So there are at least two reasons why the paradigm shifts indicated by Sutherland and Chambliss were only partially successful - Conrad Black sentenced to Jail on charges of conspiracy and fraud - Had a butler in jail – served only 3 of the 6.5 year sentence - These crimes were only able, if we are real critical, problematize these “one bad apples” - Difficul
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