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Lecture 10

CRIM 3657 Lecture 10: March 31
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Department
Criminology
Course
CRIM 3657
Professor
Robert Teixeira
Semester
Winter

Description
EXAM FORMAT: Part 1: 5 definitions (8 marks each)=total 40 marks Part 2: 1 Essay Question (20 marks)=total 20 marks Total Marks=60 Exam will draw from material after the Reading week: 1) Minaker and Hogeveen, Chapters 6-8, 10-12 2) Kara Gillies presentation 3) Raby, Giroux, Bittle, Ware, and Witherspoon Youth Crime: The Future: -what is justice? -we are exploring the advantages and disadvantages of justice -restitutive and restorative: their processes and practices will be analyzed -a fundamental question -occupied philosophers from every era: Plato, Socrates, and skipping centuries, Foucault and Derrida, etc. -we look at the relationships between youth, crime, or offending behaviour, and society The Avocado Subject: 1) Individualized 2) Atomistic: cut up in little parts and is fragmented 3) Ahistorical -standard, modernist, liberal, and humanist way of thinking about people -the avocado subject is a way of talking about individuals in an individual manner -the pit stands for a sense of a stable, unchanging self that is uncovered as we develop and mature -who we are is there in embryo form and we become what we have been fated to become -we become what we have been fated to become Ubuntu: -a person is a person through other persons -we have a definition of a person, a subject that is fundamentally community-based, other- oriented, and is relational -we are who we are through often -this can be seen through the lens of postmodern theories of the subject as socially embedded, relational, and socially constructed through multiple discourses and power relations -it fits into contemporary post-modern theories of subjectivity -this concept has very interesting parallels with postmodern thinking The Relational or Socially Embedded Subject: -to conceive of the individual or subject as a freestanding, abstracted from the culture or community from which she lives, is incomprehensible to the more post-modern or sociological contemporary vision of subjectivity -your subjectivity is criss-crossed by various discourses that have histories and are mobilized through power relations -we take up or are positioned as subjects -we must think about how discourses criss-cross us, some miss us entirely -thus, we belong to a network of discourses in connection to other people around us -we are socially-embedded, networked subjects -it means that none of these discourses are owned by us or originate from our being, but are publicly available discourses that we can take up -we can write or re-write, or (within limits) variously position ourselves differently by taking up other discourses or changing/resisting existing discourses -this changes the way of framing subjects -discourses limit and constrain us, but also allow us to explore different possibilities -discourses are malleable and multiple Approaches to Youth Crime: -based in a broader framework of how to understand youth and crime -we are analyzing the relationship between youth, crime, and society: a complex nexus -a good way to look at approaches to youth crime is not as a primarily individual issue that law will solve, but as a social and political one Retributive Justice: -examples: tough on crime laws, mandatory minimum, longer sentences, detention centers, boot camps, etc. -hierarchy, authority, and discipline are the order of the day -these programs are archetypes of Foucault’s elaboration of normalizing and disciplinary power -normalize subjectivities in the purpose of governmental aims -there is a variety of ways in which the citizen’s subjectivity is organized -the relationship between adulthood and youth -under this model of retributive justice, the adults are positioned as the knowing subject of authorities and the youth is the object undergoing administration -retribut -these systems are seen as the standard adversarial criminal justice model of dispensing justice 4 Restorative Justice Principles: -many techniques and programs fall under the rubric of restorative justice -they by and large take place outside the formal domain of the courts -the harm principle is seen as one that is broader than the harm to the state
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