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Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
EECS 1520
Michael Wharton

Scientific Literacy Skills and Ethics; Developing Paraphrasing and Citing Skills 2 | Galindez Bethesda Jan Galindez 212895116 Biology 1000 B15 Ghazaleh Firoozi 24 September 2013 Research Highlight: Stem cell success In 2006, Shinya Yamanaka and Kazutoshi Takahashi of Kyoto University in Japan successfully prepared stem-like cells, which can develop into almost any of the body’s cell types, from adult mouse skin cells. The technique involved ‘reprogramming’the skin cells by introducing four specific genes using retroviruses, and provided a means of obtaining stem-like cells without using eggs or destroying embryos. In 2007, Yamanaka and his colleagues went one better, successfully reproducing the experiment with human skin cells. The recipe works because the additional genes function as high-level regulators, turning on other genes and thereby setting off a cascade of intracellular changes. Later, the group reported that it had eliminated the cancer- causing gene c-Myc from the list of introduced genes, a research boon along the path towards patientmatched stem-cell therapies. James Thomson of the University of Wisconsin-Madison and his co-workers also published a c-Myc-free method. 3 | Galindez Notes Stem cell success 2006 • 2 Researchers, Yamanaka, and Takahashi from Kyoto Uni, Japan • Developed unspecialized stem-like cells via matured mouse skin cells • Stem-like cells = can develop in to many types of body cells • Technique used = “reprogramming” • Introduced skin cells to 4 specified genes via retroviruses • Did not use eggs or the need to destroy embryos to obtain stem-cell like cells 2007 • Resulted to further success; now experimenting with human skin cells 4 | Galindez • Introduced genes acts as high-level regulators - Sets off outpour of intracellular cells via turning on other genes Further on • Researchers announced c-Myc gene (causes cancer) has been withdrawn as one of the introduced gene • Research favoured patient-matched stem-cell therapies • Meanwhile, James Thomson & colleagues (Uni of Wisconsin-Madison), al
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