1. Which of the following terms best describes circuit boards, keyboards, and disk
A. computing system
B. computer hardware
C. computer software
D. stored memory
E. native system tools
2. Which of the following terms best describes the concept of abstraction?
A. exposing difficulty
B. hiding quantity
C. exposing distance
D. hiding details
E. exposing representation
3. In which decade was the first generation of computers developed?
4. Charles Babbage invented which of the following early computing devices?
A. analytical engine
B. memory drum
D. vacuum tube
5. Which of the following phrases best describes a Turing machine?
A. a device for integrating many chips on one circuit board
B. an abstract mathematical model of computing
C. the first electronic digital computer
D. the first successful memory storage device
E. the first computer capable of network communication
1 6. Who built the first gear-driven mechanical machine that did addition and
7. Who built the first mechanical machine that did addition, subtraction, multiplication,
8. Who designed the first mechanical machine that included memory?
9. Who was the first programmer?
10. Who proposed that a punched card be used for counting the census?
2 B. Pascal
11. What device replaced the vacuum tube?
A. disk drive
C. magnetic drum
E. punch card
12. To which hardware generation does core memory belong?
13. In which hardware generation were integrated circuits introduced?
14. By what name are input devices, output devices, and auxiliary storage devices
A. interactive devices
B. secondary memory devices
D. user devices
E. peripheral devices
3 15. What is the name of a solid piece of silicon that contains transistors, other
components, and their connections?
C. integrated circuit
E. magnetic disk
16. Which of the following statements best describes the purpose of an Ethernet?
A. connecting mainframe computers over the Internet
B. connecting small computers to share resources
C. connecting peripheral devices to a personal computer
D. connecting secondary memory to a personal computer
E. connecting input devices to a mainframe computer
17. Which language is built into the electrical circuitry of a computer?
A. assembly language
B. machine language
C. compiled language
D. high-level language
E. interpreted language
18. In which software generation did the distinction between systems programmers
and other programmers first surface?
19. In which software generation were the FORTRAN and COBOL languages
4 B. second
20. What is the purpose of a compiler?
A. translate machine language into assembly language
B. translate high-level language into machine language
C. translate FORTRAN into COBOL
D. translate machine language into FORTRAN
E. translate application programs into system programs
21. Which of the following is an application package?
B. assembly language
D. object-oriented program
E. word processor
22. Computer _______________ is the collection of programs that provide the
instructions that a computer carries out.
23. A(n) _______________ is a mental model that removes complex details.
5 24. The eighteenth century device that used cards with holes punched in them to
dictate the design of woven cloth was known as _______________.
25. First generation computers were built using _______________ to store
26. Second generation computers had memory made from _______________, tiny
doughnut-shaped devices that could each store one bit of information.
27. Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs started the _______________ company in the
fourth generation of computing hardware.
28. The set of instructions that each type of computer is designed to understand is
29. A computer with a parallel architecture uses multiple _______________ to solve a
30. In 1973, Robert Metcalfe and David Boggs invented the _______________, which
used a cheap coaxial cable to connect computers into a network.
31. In the earliest electronic computers