EN 1001 Lecture Notes - Gerald Graff, Pathos, Simile

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26 Jan 2013

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Prose: Nonfiction September 18
Qualities of Prose:
1. Prose: no sustained regular (pattern) metre; a continuous, connected order; style
Analysing prose styles - diction (word choice): abstract or concrete, formal or informal,
up to date or archaic, lots of adjectives and adverbs or few?; syntax (sentence
structure); figures of speech; tone
2. Prose nonfiction: the essay
Aldous Huxley's definition: "a literary device for saying almost everything about almost
Origins and purpose (see Montaigne's Essais (1580))
Relation to your own academic writing: process and product
3. Aristotle's elements of rhetoric: invention, disposition, style
Invention: models of persuasion (logos, pathos, ethos)
Audience and context: purpose
Style: some rhetorical devices (anaphora - a type of repetition; rhetorical questions;
figure of speech - metaphor, simile, analogy); parallelism
Logos: logic, reason
Pathos: sympathy, empathy, feeling; can add force to an argument, but should not
replace logos
Ethos: ethics; to show that you're a good person, be careful how you treat/consider
other arguments; tone you maintain throughout
4. Francis Bacon, "Of Studies" (1625)
Known mainly as a scientist and philosopher, but was also a statesman
He appeals to ethos in this article because he's saying reading builds character, but the
dominant thing he appeals to is logos - he addresses it from different angles, uses
reason to explain
Syntax: long sentences; lots of parallelism
5. Gerald Graff, "Hidden Meaning, or, Disliking books at an early age" (1992)
What is "literary study": acquiring a critical vocabulary; being initiated into the
What makes this article an effective argument: in order to understand/appreciate a
work, you need to have a good vocabulary; he appeals to ethos - he has the right to talk
about it because of his school experience; also appeals to pathos because he
understands and can empathize with students
read to identify conversation: who the author agrees with, etc
6. The Summary Assignment
Topic vs. thesis
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