EN 1006 Lecture Notes - Techne, Pathos, Syllogism
Introduction to Rhetoric
EN 1007 – Fall 2009 – Carol Poster
Lecture 10 – Nov 30
- Influencing the Will
- Influence of Aristotle
- Scope of rhetoric
oLike Aristotle, Whately was very concerned with the scope of rhetoric.
oWhat rhetoric does?
- Organon – tools – techne
oTools for thinking and writing.
oNot something with an independent subject.
oEnables you to learn a skill (techne) for writing about other subjects.
- Modest – expression and persuasion.
oWhately was concerned with thinking of rhetoric as the Earth’s most
oWhately considered rhetoric the art of expression and persuasion.
oNot some overarching way of thinking or discovering the truth.
- Discovery – expression
oVery much emphasized that they are different.
- Parallel to logic – validity vs. persuasion
oNo intended subject matter.
- Reason and emotion = will.
- Clarity, energy = will.
- Usefulness – learned skill.
- True art is nature to advantage dressed.
- What oft was thought, but ne’er so well expressed.
- Heuristics – intentional strategies.
- Debating societies – ethics
- Arguments – proposition, but a series.
- Facts vs proof
- Induction – examples of what usually happens.
- Form – irregular vs syllogism
- Subject – necessary vs. probable
- Intention – direct or reduction ad absurdum
- Relationship of premises to conclusion.
- A priori – deduction
- A posteriori – induction, sign
- Cause to effect and effect to cause
- Plausible – most likely to be believed
- Vs probable – what happens most.
- Testimony fact and an inference.
- Presumption/burden of proof.