Old English 600-1066
Medieval English 1066-1492
1066 is the Norman conquest when the French took over England.
Renaissance (“Rebirth” Early Modern) 1492-1642/Humanism (when art
became humanized-nudity first circled in art) (Interest in language as a
1600-1720 Restoration 18 Century
1790-1840 Romantics (high on opium)
1840-1900 (ca) Victorians
1900-1945 (1960) Modern Era (where poetry forms go in the trash- free
Post-modern(breaks down all rational structures)
context- the circumstances that form the setting for an event,
statement, or idea, and in terms of which it can be fully understood
subtext- an underlying and often distinct theme in a piece of
writing or conversation.
intertext-the relationship between texts, esp. literary ones
Sesquipedalian- (six-footed) (very hard)
How to analyze text:
1. what is this thing? (genre, form, theme, language-style, lexis
(words, vocabulary) etc.) (literacy is a rhetorical device)
2. who is the audience?
3. Structure? How is it organized, what’s primary, what’s secondary?
4. What is its movement? Linear, circular, iterative (repetitive) and
incremental (12 days of Christmas).
5. What is its level of language? Prose, blank verse, and verse
The basic unit of prose is the sentence or the paragraph. The basic unit
of verse is the lines, but verse must include end rhyme, and ictic
regularity (decasyllabic). Blank verse (no metre or rhyme) 6. What devices of figurative language? (wit- the ability to compare
two things together) My life is shit (life and shit)
7. Euphemism (pleasant name for unpleasant thing) Where’s the
washroom instead of get me to the shit room. Opposite is
8. Hyperbole (exaggeration without the intent to deceive)
9. Metaphor and simile (extended metaphor- conceit LONG
10. Personification and reification –synecdoche (a part becomes
a whole-redhead, blonde, etc.) (take human trait and turn into an
object-hands like stone)
11. What is the dominant style?
Paratactic (parataxis) – coordinators (or;:. and but)
He ran and ran and then he stopped
Hypotactic (hypotaxis) – subordination – which, who, because, if, since,
He ran and ran but then he stopped because he was tired. (this is
paratactic and hypotactic, not all sentences have one or the other)
Right branching: I walked my dad yesterday morning before I woke up
and ate breakfast. right branching has more words on the right side
from the main verb which in this case is “walked”
Left branching: Yesterday morning, after I awoke and before I had my
breakfast, I walked my dog. Left branching has more words on the left
side from the main verb which in this case is “walked”
Ben Johnson is talking about tentative (hesitant) discourse
“skin and coat” – parallelism- range doublet because skins and coats