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Week 19 Latin American Cinema and Globalization.docx

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EN 1006
Alison Halsall

Week 19: Latin American Cinema and Globalization Brazil Film History WWII: Brazil and most Latin American countries allied with USA: "good neighbor" policy. -American influence on Brazil: economic and “cultural imperialism” 1950s: Brazilian movie screens dominated by American Hollywood film -Brazilian production: popular genres imitating and “Brazilianizing” American musicals, melodramas, action film, and comedies Most influential movement in Brazilian film: Cinema Nôvo (new cinema), of 1960s  like French New Wave of late 50s and early 60s: cinephiles, lovers of cinema, often critics, usually men, sometimes working collectively  political militancy among Cinema Novo members: critical of dominant politics in Brazil (military, landowners, and industrialist ruled country)  sympathy with economic deprivation of Third World vs First World, esp. America  defended disenfranchised people: ethnic minorities (people of Indian, African descent) and peasants & laborers.  "Cinema Nôvo shows that the normal behavior of the starving is violence"—the violence of wide-spread economic deprivation  connection to syncretic culture (e.g., Cuba) o Nelson Pereira dos Santos o Glauber Rocha o Carlos Diegues Cinema Nôvo: 3 stages 1. 1960-64: free, very successful, international prizes  Cinema Nôvo encouraged at first by Pres Joao Goulart, who emphasized liberal modernization and "development" 2. 1964-68: reassessment and disillusionment  1964: military coup ousted Goulart; military ruled in collaboration with conservative landowners and industrialists  but film culture continued to grow: film courses at university, film festival, magazines  state support: tax exemptions, screen quotas for Brazilian films  INC: Instituto Nacional do Cinema (National Film Institute) 3. 1968-72: rich phase of films, ironically, under repressive regime  1969: political censorship was stiffer (though sexual censorship was relaxed)  forced creation of allegorical cinema rather than a realist cinema to creatively circumvent censors: Robert Stam and Randal Johnson: "cannibal-tropicalist" phase  1969: new organization created to finance and export films overseas: Embra-filme  Embra-filme: vertically integrated to give monopoly over Brazilian cinema + screen quotas  cooptation of Cinema Nôvo style and energies and personnel into national film industry Politics of Adaptation  1974-1985: Embrafilme revives film production in Brazil,
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