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EN 1006
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Introduction to Rhetoric EN 1007 – Fall 2009 – Carol Poster Lecture 5 – Aristotle – Oct 19 Aristotle - Aristotle: biography o 384 BC – 322 BC. o Born in Stagira; North eastern Agia. o Referred to as ‘the philosopher’. o Translated into Arabic; long commentaries were writing about his rhetoric. o His father, Nicomachus, was court physician to King Amyntas of Macedonia. o Aristotle studied at Platonic academy from 366 (went to Athens to ‘live philosophy’ age 18) to 347 (Plato’s death when Aristotle was 37). o Rhetoric is a part of citizenship; independent of political and ethical. o Founded and taught in own school, Lyceum (335-322). o Peripatetic – ‘walking around’.  Lyceum; founded in place essentially an area with a large porch where people wondered around. o Known as Golden tongue. - History of Aristotelian corpus. o Not works he wrote for publication. o Lecture notes. o Possibly notes taken by students. o Assembled by members of school. o Neglected for a long period until 50-45 BC they were edited, a friend of Cicero’s. o Length of about 30-40 English books. - Composition of rhetoric. o What rhetoric is to Aristotle?  One of the few who attempted to know everything and to organize it in a systematic fashion. • With branches.  Tried to divide knowledge by type. • Degree and certainty. o Q and A method. o Art of persuasion; interest in argumentation and proof. o Inquiry/persuasion. - Counterpart of dialectic. - Techne (ars) vs. empeiria – people all argue/persuade but most at random. o Empeiria  In speaking and persuasion, we know how to act.  Don’t know how they work but that they do work. o Techne; derive technology; systematic way of doing something practical, systematic skill; craft/skill – direct English translation.  Learning Greek; learn latin, translate to Greek then translate back.  Techne (Greek) to Ars (Latin) to Art (English); closest translations. - Place of rhetoric in hierarchy of knowledge – demonstration/science, practical wisdom/applied science (phronesis, dialectic), techne (rhetoric, handbooks, probable), knack (practice, maxism). o Demonstrative knowledge; math and physics and metaphysics. o Practical wisdom/applied science (phronesis) – ethics.  Practical philosophy means how to conduct your life as an ethical member of the community.  Analysis. o Difference between Demonstrative and practical; things that happen in the most part but are not always true. o Rhetoric; productive art, similar to practical wisdom because its related to probability.  Like poetry; has outcome.  Has product/outcome.  Applied side to practical wisdom. - What is not subject of rhetoric – eclipses and sunrises, pure matters of opinion. o There are systematic ways of doing things. o A system for producing discourse.  Should be useful. o Not needed; simple matters of fact (simply state them). - 3 pisteis (ethos, pathos, logos). Singular; pistis, plural: pisteis. o Persuasion = proof. o Pistis = proof. o Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic (Entechne/Atechne)  Ethos – character of speaker. • Intrinsic; can control. • Extrinsic; outside control.  Pathos – emotions of audience. • Persuading my manipulating emotions. • Extrinsic; prior to what exists when you start speaking. • Intrinsic; how you use extrinsic as a speaker. • Aristotle is against pathos.  Logos – reason (not facts, which are ‘pragmata’) • One place at one time, away from crime scene, facts have to do with place of client.
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