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York University
EN 1006

Introduction to Rhetoric EN 1007 – Fall 2009 – Carol Poster Lecture 6 – Issue Theory and Parts of Oration – Oct 26 - Cicero – brief biography. - Ad Herennium not by Cicero. - Ancient pseudo – epigraphy [how do we know who wrote what, ways, means and motives of pseudonymnity]. - Terminology: ps.-Cicero [pseudo-Cicero], auctor ad Herennium. o Formal ways to refer to in print to a pseudo author. - Authorship: 90-80 BC. Many passages quoted by Quintilian from Cornificius are can be found in this text but details don’t match precisely. - Roman cultural background o Rome until JC took over, was a republic. o The senate was a functioning active body that reflected the laws. o Citizens participating in political process, o Significant verbal protests. o Rome became an empire after JC. o Rhetoric became nature to focus more on forensic and epideictic. o Three types of oratory.  Forensic oratory would be used in court.  Epideictic – public lectures, mass’ – display – poems at festivals.  Legislative – in the legislature. o Continue to get court cases. - Republic, principate, empire (Cicero and Caesar) o Town of long nosed fish – throw rubbish on carpets. o Tetanus – treated crocodiles are divine – when they died, they were wrapped and made into papery. o Pig stealing – neighbours would steal pigs. o Inheritance fights. - Class system: legal status: citizen, freedman, perigrinus, slave, ranks: royalty, senator, equestrian, plebeian. Patronage system. o Increase of lit skills. o Professions devoted to lit skills. - Graeco-Roman relations: Rome conquered Greece militarily but Greece conquered Rome culturally. - Roman occasions for literacy: cursus honorum (magistracies). City councils, senate, increasing professionalization of various literate skills. o Cursus Honorum – imp gov position that required you to judge legal decisions. - Writing in professions and writing as profession. Professions which required writing/speaking skills: business manager, bureaucrat, military. Reading and writing not widely diffused outside upper classes, because literacy services widely available. Writing/speaking as profession; scribe, secretary, copyist, calligrapher, stenographer, advocate, lector. o To send a letter from Egypt – you could walk down the street to find a scribe to write for you. o Secretaries. o Calligraphers – beautiful writing without printing as an art. o Dictation at high speeds – people did this. o Lawyers – advocates. o Lector – people to read out loud to you. - Legal system: unlike Athens, advocate spoke in court for clients. Advocacy evolving out of patronage system. Expert jurists, assorted advocates, amateur judges, and politician-magistrates. - Roman education and the audience for ad Her. - Literacy/numeracy, grammar, rhetoric. Specialized training in law or medicine. Basic training in elementary lit/num. o Middle grammar. o Last – rhetoric; law and medicine. o Ars recte loquendi – art of correct speech. o Ars enarratio poetarum – reading passages and what they meant. - Very narrow courses in stenography and business skills [often aimed at freedmen or slaves]. o Liberal ed for gentlemen. o Slavish/pra
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