Introduction to Rhetoric
EN 1007 – Fall 2009 – Carol Poster
Lecture 8 – Nov 16
o Beginning of literacy
o Middle ages; much of lit professions in Europe were restricted to Catholic
o West fell apart into invaders of different places.
o If you weren’t part of the church you didn’t exist.
o Cathedral schools were popular.
o Monasteries not only had schools but were centers of learning and
o Up until 1800 over 70% of Oxford went into priest hood – church taking
o Bearcat tended to be priests.
Controversies over Cicero.
Latin as ‘artificial’ international language.
o Middle ages and 17 /18 century.
o By 15/1600 something happens which effects how writing is seen – rise of
o National governments begin to take rise.
o Thrown and altered.
o The pope – actually was the person who crowned the emperor.
o Rise of the nations – the nations want their own traditions and own
language, they slowly develop their own beurocratcy and cultural
Rise of middle classes.
Rise of vernacular literacy.
Style as amplification, persuasion and ornament.
o Grammatical parallelism the content is parallel when it isn’t.
o Direct address.
o An overall way of style
• Simple, direct, unornamented.
• Practical situations
• Trying to convey info without confusion.
• Writing to friends/ESL people/ manuals.
• Lysias – famous as the great example of the middle style.