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EN 1006
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Introduction to Rhetoric EN 1007 – Fall 2009 – Carol Poster Lecture 9 – Nov 23 th th - 18 and 19 century British education. o Period of great change in education. o Whitely was an enormous part of that change. - Old and new writing situations – preaching, letters, parliament (including Bishops in House of Lords), newspapers. Development of mass audience. o Equal debating parliament. o Courtrooms, forensic oratory. o Preaching started in Middle Ages and keeps happening. o Most of Whately’s oxford students are going to become priests, they need to know how to preach. o Should enable people to understand their religion. o Plain preaching make sense and communicate effectively. o Letter writing – more people are indulging in it than ever. o Getting something new, written communication in mass media; nethpapers, periodicals. o 19 century there is a major technological development of the invention of paper made out of wood pulp. o Publication aimed at middle classes. o Only the rick had books – all this changed with new development of paper. o Postal system – rapid changing technology dramatically increases the number of readers and the number of people making a living writing it. o Best selling genre – bible. o Second best – sermons o Third best – periodicals. - Whately – biography o Born in 1783 died in 1863. o Start career as prof at Oxford University. o Required to be celibacy. o When they got married they had to resign their position and could only return if they had highly competitive position as heads of various collages. o Served as parish priest. o Head of St. Alvin’s house. o Prof of political economy. o The Church of England split off from Church of Rome in 1545 and was established as the official national church by a law. o Parliament – House of Commons and House of Lords. o House of Lords – bishops. o Whitely if you think of him as an archbishop = Member of Parliament for life. o Revised laws of welfare. o He was for his time a wild radical. o Argued that Jews and atheists should be allowed to be members of parliament. o Notion of religion is one that one’s religious belief should be based on studying and reading evidence. o A religious belief taken on blind faith doesn’t count much. o He wanted people to be educated enough to make good judgements on religion. o His way of going about his study of evidence – everything depends on how you think through evidence and testimony. o His work and education – as archbishop he was on the national education board in Ireland, the first place which tried to give public education for free to every single child in Ireland, Whately was a promoter of education. o Free public schools for every child – one of the crucial figures that created that; Whately. o He believed everyone had to be educated – the poor – the women as well as the men. o He got daily hate mail in the paper and in person. o Education will improve lives of all – Whately – part of a democracy, everyone should be able to write, read and think about things logically. o People couldn’t believe he was advocating things like this. o Enormously unpopular position for an archbishop. o
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