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EN 1700

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Professional Writing: Process and Practice EN 1700 – Fall/Winter 2009/2010 – Jan Rehner Lecture 10 – Sophie Scholl – Nov 23 The Context of Resistance General; Germany - Economically, Germany was facing destruction. - Inflation – Germany. - High unemployment among young people. - Deep suspicion and fear of communism. - Part of the cause of the economic ruin there was a crippling state debt. - Mostly caused by reparations from WWI. - Wide spread fear & suspicion of other nations – racism and anti-communist. - Hitler was seen as a hero by the hurt, and wounded in Germany. - Hitler let people out of jail and gave them land. University; Germany - Members of the white rose came from that community. - In late 19 century German university were the best in the world. - They had amazing scholars and leaders, and they were very much a part of the German community. - The people in the university don’t know what’s going on in the real world; not the case in Germany. - No division between university people and the society. - They believed that education was the key to self-determination and self- realization. - Founded on Christian and humanism principles. - Humanism – belief in the dignity of the individual. - Those principles C & H are part of the white rose. - Principles of the university and the principles of the white rose movements; fine line between. - Began to change when mass culture and rising class of businessmen. - If you get government founding you have to walk a tight rope with low independent you stay from government and how much you change your curriculum to please the government. - They don’t want you to teach humanism; they want you to learn a trade. - The ties between practical education and research. - The hierarchy of the university where under pressure. - 1920s and 1930s the universities in Germany where in crisis. - Why? Because young people couldn’t find work so they flooded the classes, huge spike in enrollment. - The defeat of Germany in WWI means there was a crisis of confidence and logic. - The heart of thinking in the heart of the university was a way of thinking that people had lost confidence in. - When the Nazis came along, they wanted to control the universities and it was the students that formed the vanguard of the Nazi campaign in the universities. - Students began to rate universities in rate of how ‘brown’ they were – colour of the nazi uniform. - Brown university = pro-nazi. - Shut down Jewish professors. - Any professor that had sympathy. - Sadly and dramatically, it was university students who aided the Nazis when they burned the books. - Sophie Scholl had a favourite poet; Hendrick Iana; after the burning of the book ‘where books are burned, they will ultimately burn human beings.’ - The students were vulnerable; generational gap. - Old way of thinking too stayed and not changing enough, they wanted something new in the university. - The hoped the Nazi would improve their careers. - Many young people were inspired by the German Volk. - German Volk had a strong sense of community; love of one’s home and culture. - Appealing notion that the young would rebuild the nation. - League of young maddens; Sophie Scholl. - German universities allow 10% of females. - Head of universities were appointed by Nazis and the university was expected to carry out Nazi policies. - Many professors fled the country or were officially banned. - They lost people who may have helped them with weapons to win. - All students were required to do military service before they graduate. - Nazis believed that the students should be shown real life, and not allowed to mix with the more privileged classes. - Students could not qualify for grants or scholarships without demonstrating their commitment to the Nazis, service certificates. The Language of Resistance - Manifesto of the white rose. - The dialogue that occurs when she is being interrogated is taking directly from the Gestapo records at the time. - Gestapo = police of the Nazi. - Conversations in the film are taken directly from records. - Manifesto implies a unified
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