EN2120 – Fall/Winter 2011/2012 – Judith Stuart
Lecture 6 – Oct 27
- Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913) and ‘The Course in General Linguistics’
- Structuralism and In Search of Authority.
- Structuralism and Flannery O’Connor’s ‘A Good Man is Hard to Find’.
o The study of language using what are considered to be scientific
- [Language is considered etymology.]
o The smallest units of distinguishable sounds that make up language.
o The basic parts of words.
o The study of the root of words.
o The study of the meaning of words.
o Grammatical structure of words in order for them to make sense.
- Morphology (and morphemes)
o The study of morphemes.
- Phenology (and phonemes)
o The study of phonemes.
o Over time. Over the period of time or over the time’s passage.
o Page 96 – example.
o Recognizes that all elements of a given language are available to the
speaker of the that language simultaneously – at the same time.
- Sign (or Linguistic sign) = Significations & signal.
- Syntagmatic Relations.
o System of rules which govern any given language – i.e. grammar and
vocabulary. - The rules of the community which govern what those things mean in the
o An individual speech act as used by an individual speaker.
Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913)
- Born into academic family.
- After he died, his students published his ideas – it was first published in French.
- Saussure found diachronic study to be frustrating and useless – it showed what
language used to be and what it was and it’s changes over time – also showed
how immigrants brought and took language around with them and therefore
- Saussure argued that a synchronic method/approach was more useful.
- Saussure developed an idea of language – as used by a community of speakers
instead of an individual.
o For the most part – ideas do not exist independently from the word – if you
have the word for it it’s because you already have the concept.
- Saussure believes that the idea doesn’t exist independent from the word.
- Saussure believes that there are two sides to the linguistics sign: