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Department
English
Course
EN 2120
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Winter

Description
Prose Narrative EN2120 – Fall/Winter 2011/2012 – Judith Stuart Lecture 6 – Oct 27 Outline - Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913) and ‘The Course in General Linguistics’ (1915). - Linguistics. - Structuralism. - Structuralism and In Search of Authority. - Structuralism and Flannery O’Connor’s ‘A Good Man is Hard to Find’. Keywords - Linguistics o The study of language using what are considered to be scientific principles. - [Language is considered etymology.] - Phoneme o The smallest units of distinguishable sounds that make up language. - Morpheme o The basic parts of words. - Semiotics. - Structuralism. - Etymology o The study of the root of words. - Semantics o The study of the meaning of words. - Syntax o Grammatical structure of words in order for them to make sense. - Morphology (and morphemes) o The study of morphemes. - Phenology (and phonemes) o The study of phonemes. - Diachronic o Over time. Over the period of time or over the time’s passage. o Page 96 – example. - Synchronic o Recognizes that all elements of a given language are available to the speaker of the that language simultaneously – at the same time. - Sign (or Linguistic sign) = Significations & signal. - Syntagmatic Relations. - Langue o System of rules which govern any given language – i.e. grammar and vocabulary. - The rules of the community which govern what those things mean in the language. - Parole o An individual speech act as used by an individual speaker. Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913) - Born into academic family. - After he died, his students published his ideas – it was first published in French. Linguistics - Saussure found diachronic study to be frustrating and useless – it showed what language used to be and what it was and it’s changes over time – also showed how immigrants brought and took language around with them and therefore bastardized it. - Saussure argued that a synchronic method/approach was more useful. - Saussure developed an idea of language – as used by a community of speakers instead of an individual. o For the most part – ideas do not exist independently from the word – if you have the word for it it’s because you already have the concept. - Saussure believes that the idea doesn’t exist independent from the word. - Saussure believes that there are two sides to the linguistics sign:
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