Class Notes (811,169)
Canada (494,539)
York University (33,712)
English (906)
EN 3000 (11)
all (5)


5 Pages
Unlock Document

York University
EN 3000

Contemporary Literary and Cultural Theory EN3000 – Fall/Winter 2011/2012 – Nemanja Protic Lecture 6 – Critique of Metaphysics I & II: Nietzsche & Derrida – Oct 20 Review Kant - Public reason - Private reason - He believes that eventually the division between public and private reason will merge. Hegel - Agrees that there is a division but he believes that people’s freedom is their right to obey. o For him, the state is an embodiment of the idea and the political realm. - Metaphysics and politics are directly related. - Everything is about an abstract/pure thought – human knowledge is at the center of everything. Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) th - Born on October 15 , 1844 in Prussian Saxony. - His father died in 1849 and he was brought up in a ‘feminine and pious society of his mother, his sister, a grandmother and two aunts.’ - Studied philology in Bonn and Leipzig. - Became a university professor before finishing his doctorate, but negative reactions to his first published work soon saw him disillusioned with the academic world, which he left in 1879. - Was sick most of his life with various illnesses; spent most of his life between 1879 and 1889 travelling through Europe, trying to find a suitable climate for his health. - In 1889, he suffered a mental collapse after seeing a whipping of a horse in the streets of Turin, Italy. - He spent most of his last 10 years uncommunicative in care of his sister Elisabeth, who took control of some of his last writings and edited/published them herself. On the Unity and Liability of History - Hegel is the historical man/Napoleon is unhistorical. o Unhistorical person is someone who disagrees with and discredits everything that came before them. o If we only dedicate ourselves to the historical we become a fossil. o History is contingent – a series of events that cause one another. o History as a whole is that whole dialectical process. Nietzsche - Privies life over knowledge. o In Nietszche’s first work, N distinguished between two forces in art and in life:  Apollonian  Dionysus - Attacks metaphysics from the outside – he doesn’t agree with the terms they outline – he goes outside of them with ‘life’ – life is greater than the metaphysical. - Coupled with the refusal is his critique of science – science is just another way of holding on and pushing forward the apollonian principle of life – once we put all our faith in science we see only half of the reality. - These systems are viewed as illusions to Nietzsche. Apollonian and Dyonisian Terms for the twin principles which the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche detected in Greek civilization in his early work… The Birth of Tragedy (1872). Nietzsche was challenging the usual view of Greek culture as ordered and serene, emphasizing instead the irrational element of frenzy found in the rites of Dionysus (the god of intoxication known to the Romans as Bacchus). He associated the Apollonian tendency with the instinct for form, beauty, moderation, and symmetry, best expressed in Greek sculpture, while the Dionysian… instinct was one of irrationality, violence, and exuberance, found in music. This opposition has some resemblance to that between classicism and Romanticism. In Nietzche’s theory of drama, the Apollonian (in dialogue) and the Dianysian (in choric song) are combined in early Greek tragedy. - There are two forces which participate in life and art – they exist in Greek tragedy. Apollo (Nietzsche) “The joyous necessity of the dream experience has been embodied by the Greeks in their Apollo:… He, … the deity of light, is also ruler over the beautiful illusion of the inner world of fantasy. The higher truth, the perfection of these states [of sleep and dreams] in contrast to the incompletely intelligible everyday world… is at the same time the symbolical analogue of the soothsaying faculty and of the arts generally, which make life possible and worth living. But we must also include in our image of Apollo that delicate boundary which the dream image must not overstep lest it have a pathological effect… We must keep in mind that measured restraint, that freedom from the wilder emotions, that calm of the sculptor god… And so, in one sense, we might apply to Apollo the words of Schopenhauer…: ‘Just as in a stormy sea that, unbounded in all directions, raises and drops mountainous waves, howling, a sailor sits in a boat and trusts in his frail bark: so in the midst of a world of torments the individual human being sits quietly, supported by and trusting in the principium individuationis.” In fact… we might call Apollo himself the glorious divine image of the principium individuationis, through whose gestures and eyes all the joy and wisdom of ‘illusion,’ together with its beauty, speaks to us.” - On the one hand we have the world of dreams which is the world of beauty. - He says Hegel only focuses on Apollonian because everything is about life. Dionysus (Nietzsche) “In the same work Schopenhauer has depicted for us the tremendous terror which seizes man when he is suddenly dumbfounded by the cognitive form of phenomena because the principle of sufficient reason, in some one of its manifestations, seems to suffer an exception. If we add to this terror the blissful ecstasy that wells from the innermost depths of man, indeed of nature, at this collapse of the principium individuations, we steal a glimpse into the nature of the Dionysian, which is brought home to use most intimately
More Less

Related notes for EN 3000

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.