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EN 3193
Natalie Neill

GREEK SATIRE mode (style) for Greeks- Northrop Frye didn’t view satire as genre so therefore satire more flexible existed since 3000 BC “Satire of the Trades” (The Instruction of Dua-Kheti) though was a scribe in Egypt by Dua-Kheti in 2000 BC Dua-Kheti is satirizing labourers and other lower professions, trying to convince his son Pepi that a life as a scribe is much better Didactic: intended to teach a lesson, esp. to offer moral instruction (Satire of the Trades is didactic) THE OBJECT OF SATIRE IS TO TEACH AND INSPIRE. ARCHILOCUS (680-645 BC)- warrior satirist - soldier for hire - entertained soldiers with short little poems - Famous for iambic couplets which were easily memorized and repeated - Very witty and savagery (bitter poetry/personal abuse) “Scorpion tongued” - Wrote in first person - Goal to punish bad behaviour - criticize dominant culture from outside Invective: speech or writing that denounces a person, an idea, or an institution; a violent act (like Archilocus’s writing) Famous for ridiculing Lycambes- in love with Lycambes’s daughter. Arch was born an illegitimate child (born from a mother slave) so Lycambes refuses to have them married. So Arch discredits Lycambes and daughter who hang themselves out of public shame. This is an example as to how satire can be used as a weapon. Robert C. Elliott called Arch’s satire more like curses. Call Arch a magician with words give on what he can do AESOP (620-560 BC) (THE FABLE MAN) - illiterate slave - most of his fables could have been written by others - a mother goose character - Aesop is suggested wasn’t a real person but like “Uncle Remus” (created by Joel Chandler Harris 1880s) was made up - told animal stories - folklore - Uncle Remus and Aesop were slaves and told animal stories - criticize dominant culture from outside THE FABLE - always a moral - dialogue between two characters (usually animals) - use nature as the setting/scene - promote social virtues- sympathy for others, modesty, etc. - point out flaws of existent people - short stories-vehicle for moral - always a target - satiric comparison - connect animals with certain traits (fox- foxy [cunning and deceptive])(wolves-cruel) (asses (donkeys)-fools) (pigs- gluttonous) Fable: a short narrative that presents a moral, often fables feature animals as characters Allegory: narrative Greek: (allos- other) (agoria- speaking) (so speaking to another) A relationship between the particular and the general. Two dissimilar things. Anthropomorphism: the attribution of human characteristics to a non-human entity personification: “the impersonation of embodiment of a quality or an abstraction” (J. A. Cuddon) defamiliarization: a technique by which the familiar is rendered strange; defamiliarization creates critical distance and allow us to see common things from a new perspective satyr play: one of three kinds of classical Greek dram, the other two being tragedy and comedy. Always performed after a tragedy, the satyr play was a short burlesque, which featured a chorus of mischievous, lusty satyrs. th old comedy: a kind of comedy that predominated in the 5 century BC. The plays were scandalous and bawdy (vulgar), and often made reference to contemporary people and events. ARISTOPHANES (446-380 BCE) - Wrote “The Clouds”- the power of words- Socrates insulted in the play - Scorates could have been sentence to death because of this MENIPPUS (250 BC) - scenic - unknown when born - satire lack formulaic regulation but poetic - multiple targets in his writing - none of his writings still exist Menippean satire: satire characterized by is loose mizture of genres, syles, and voices - indirect satire through narrative - voyage in an upside-down (world of fantasy that could have parallels to regular human world) world - multiple targets - characters are ridiculous mouthpieces for various ideological or political positions - Histories of Gargantua and Pantagruel good example LUCIAN (125-180 AD) - of Samosata (imitator of Menippus) - famous for “The True History” – travel narrative (early example of science fiction)-vehicle for satire - stories parody travel writing - Great influence to Jonathan Swift and other later satirists ROMAN SATIRE “satura…tota nostra est” (“satire…is totally ours” i.e. Roman creation) – Marcus Fabius Quintilianus He refers to a specific form of verse writtin by the Roman satirists Lucilius Horace, and Juvenal GAIUS LUCILIUS (168-102 BCE) - libertas- aggressive free speech - masculine warrior, invectives towards enemies - hexameter poetry (six-beat line) easy to mock epics given the same meter - Luc represents himself as a poet to explain why he’s writing what he’s writing – why why he’s criticizing Roman culture (apology) Formal Roman Satire: verse genre in hexameter in which the fictional speaker addresses the reader directly in the first person, and often speaks to a fictional character (the adversaries: challenger) - censures folly/vice and promotes moral virtue - topical: refers to curren events - highly rhetorical - famous practioners: Lucilius, Horace, and Juvenal Hyperbole: a bold overstatement through exaggeration (used through metaphor and simile) Allusion: a figure of speech that refers to a historical or literary figure, even, text, or object, it relies on the reader’s familiarity with the reference Catalogue: a long list of persons, places, or things: often exempla—examples of sinful types (stock characters: e.g. the miser, the glutton, etc. so negative figures) Rhetorical question: a question asked for persuasive effect; it puts the persona and the reader in collusion and expresses the poet’s frustration (a question not to be answered but force you into agreement. No answer because it is not needed as you know it’s true) Aphorism: a terse (brief) statement of a principle or moral truth (lessons) Ancient Rome was repeatedly encumbered with nasty emperors and therefore tyranny (bullying, oppression) was the norm. Julius Caesar Augustus: began an autocratic management of the republic (declined) Became a totalitarian (authoritarian) government. With Augustus, free speech Rome. QUINTUS HORATIUS FLACCUS (65-8 BCE) - Patron (supporter, fan) Gaius Maecenas (closest associate) - was in the in-crowd (insider but was still an outsider but got information from within) which is why satires are less aggressive - trying to get a higher status like Lucilius and own a farm be out of it all - hexameter verse but altered it and made it more prose (casual speech) so conversational - sermo cotidianus (everyday speech) – “sermo” means chat - wrote three apologies (programmatic satires- lay out a program of what the satire is) - more light (timid) satire, not invective-never points fingers - believes satire to be economic and controlled tightly and balanced (show moderation so controlled) - signature phrase – “iam satis est” i.e. that’s enough now - theme with Horace and Juvenal- money destroys human relationships HORATIAN SATIRE - genial and tolerant criticism of human foibles, amused more than angry - moderation and restraint in writing and in moral censure; advises the moderation of desire - autobiographical, ridicules his own faults; humble and paternal person - belief in reform, optimistic DECIMUS LUNIUS JUVENALIS (JUVENAL) (55- 135CE) - full at bursting rhetoric anger - was under totalitarian emperor Domitian (fifteen years of terror) - exiled to Egypt by Domitian (controversy, why not just kill him) - mysterious figure - published at middle age when Domitian was assassinated - criticized as cowardly since he published his slander when Domitian is dead - scholars though believe him to publish his work as a more revealing of his pessimism, imminent apocalypse. Wanted to inform Rome of the end of their days. JUVENILE SATIRE - highly rhetorical - expresses
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