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Lecture 9

ENVS 1000 Lecture 9.docx

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York University
Environmental Studies
ENVS 1000
Peter Timmerman

11/20/2013 11:24:00 AM Slavery and Imperialism: African Slave trade (1500-1870):  Was able to move ppl with the currents b/w Africa and south America. Developed through the triangular trade (an exchange of goods and humans from Africa to South/north America, to Europe that followed the current of the North Atlantic Ocean).  Sleigh ships is what were used to move the commodities (humans) and had mortality rates of around 25%. Would find themselves on sugar plantations in South America. There are some examples of salve revolts  In order to stop slavery in the early 18 thcentury the emerging liberal class (mainly women) created the first NGO’s (initial elements: networks of ppl writing, hold inquires, ex-slave speakers).  William Wilberforce (best friend of prime minister of England) convinced the parliament that the salve trade should be abolished.  There were many colonial ports set up throughout much of Asia. Huge enterprise, merchants realized they needed to discover a way to finance this all, from this grew the modern corporation (stock trading)  Modern corporation became a law onto itself (Hudson Bay Company), had armies and navies to enforce will. Canada is a corporate country. 1300s on: scientific/natural knowledge is applied in constant technological invention and innovation, leading to industrial development End product: mechanization of the world picture and the assumption of the uniformity of the world The rise of banks/ stocks / etc.  Banks originally “benches” where money exchanges went on, mostly for travelling merchants  Deposits were left in banks for safekeeping  Deposits credited to other banks elsewhere  Partial deposits – banks profit from interest and other use of money  Stocks: “seats at the table” partial ownership of a company – limited liability Created to organize the flows of money and the merchants, than decided who would be part of the new companies. Eventually evolved into Stock Exchanges. The scientific methods + Tech  Simple rules (often mathematically derivable) controlled tests, practical experiment- may prove, refute, hint at, test hypothesis  The results may be confirmed. Refuted communally and be cumulative  New hypothesis suggests new tests  Technological innovation and scientific understanding/practice begin to evolve together (common project that people actually confirm or refute ideas (adding to material already existing)) We begin to see this than around 1750 (just after the Black Death) the world population skyrockets.  Out of this arises the idea that air has weight, this lead to the first steam engines. By 1600, woodlands all over Europe especially in England were being cur down; coal was being dug deeper and deeper. As a solution to needing a vacuum [the Newcomen engine (1712)] was used to create a vacuum: injecting cold/hot alternatively  Eventually Watt’s steam engine is created (1770s). Watt’s engine allowed ppl to have engines that were not restricted to water masses. Transportation:  Up to this point is primarily horse and canal transport. Railways spread alongside rail transport
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