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Lecture 10

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York University
Environmental Studies
ENVS 1500
Gail Fraser

11/25/2013 7:25:00 AM Is Q-Inherent Soil Quality SQS-Soil Quality Standards 1A. Climate Climate is defined as the average weather pattern over a long period of time at a particular location, normally in terms of temperature and precipitation.  Weather is not the climate, climate is long term trends Climate is not the same everywhere. Why? There are two fundamental abiotic reasons why 1) The Earth is round (non-equal distribution) 2) Tilted on its axis (unequal amounts of sunlight) Hadley Cell –30 digress North/South of equator  Cycle that creates heavy rainfall near equator, and the leftover cool air at sucks up all moisture at 30 degrees Polar Cell – 60 degree/cool dry air sent over the artic (cycle) The polar cell and Hadley cell interact and create what is known as the temperate zone (Ferrel cell) (30-60 degrees = creates our temperate environment) Coriolis Force: objects/winds deflect to the right in northern hemisphere and to the left in southern hemisphere World Biomes are affected by participation and temperature B. Soils  Both alive and inert, soil chemistry drives activity.  Each subsequent level of soil is called a horizon  O horizon: Organic layer freshly fallen organic material - most superficial layer.  A horizon: Mixture of organic matter, minerals, clay, silt and/or sand.  B horizon: Clay, humus, and other materials leached from A horizon - often contains plant roots.  C horizon: Weathered “parent” material. (rock bed, (no soil and weathering)). E.g. of soils in Canada  Podzolic soils in Boreal regions  Chernozemic soil: dark areas are the organic layers Processes which re-distribute soil are: wind and water are two main abiotic processes that move soil around. C. Biome: 3 definitions that can be found • A large, relatively distinct terrestrial region, encompassing many interacting ecosystems, and characterized by similar climate, soil, plants, and animals, regardless of where it occurs on Earth. • A biogeographic region; a major regional ecological community characterized by distinctive life forms and principal plant (terrestrial biome) and animal (marine biome) species. • A major life zone containing interrelated plants and animals adapted to a particular climate and soil, which covers a large geographical area. There are many different Terrestrial Eco-zones within a Biome.  Terrestrial biomes is a variety of habitats, not just one (patches of habitats).  Artic tundra: short growing season with little participation  Boreal Forest: dominated by black spruce trees, acidic soil limits tree variation. S
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