ENVS 2400 Shakeel Dilbar 211341815
Commentary for Organic Food Labeling (Green Labels – Ch5)
The Biodynamic Movement was considered the early pioneer movement that promoted
the methods of alternative agriculture production. This movement provided a broad
thorough critique of the industrialized societies and largescale capitalist business. As part
of the movement, the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements
(IFOAM) was established in 1972 by five organizations, in countries namely: France,
United Kingdom, and South Africa and Biodynamic association in Sweden.
The creation of these institutions can be seen as a manifestation of ‘development’
in which organic movements initiated regulated global standards for organic production.
Organic Labeling in Sweden
In 1972, Sweden saw four national organizations combined together, forming
KRAV started to issue rules for organic production and to monitor license holders of their
certification. The institution was accredited as the local controlling body according to the
Presently, KRAV has gradually developed a closer relationship with the state and KRAV
has state autonomy to audit organic food production practices by corporations in the food
processing sector of a nation's economy. KRAV is also there to ensure that EU regulations
for organic food production are followed by all corporations that produce and export
organic food in Sweden. The author notes that KRAV has provided and continues to
abide by stricter rules and broader spectrums for food production issues outside of EU
Fact: In 2006, 6.6% of all Swedish Arable land was KRAV certified
Accounting for approximately 3% of the country's gross food consumption (sales value)
was from organic production methods.
Organic Food Labeling in the United States
Organic Labeling in the United States
In 1973, Oregon became the first state to pass a law regarding organic food
production as a response to reports of fraud and inconsistencies with respect to organic
Before this, it was entirely up to each company to use its discretion with respect to
labeling their products as organic or Genetically Modified (GM)
In the 1990s and 2000s, the United States of America saw a federal ambition to move
from a complex diverse regulatory system to a more rationally standardized one.
This further led to the incorporation of the Organic Food Protection Act (OFPA) into the
1990 Farm Bill.
The author cited the general c